Source: Video Image: Neuron; Creative Commons: http://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Neuron.svg&page=1
The central part of the neuron, which contains all the basic parts of a cell (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.); the cell body.
The part of the neuron that branches out into many smaller parts, which receive signals from other neurons.
The long tail-like structure that comes off of the cell body and sends signals along the cell and out to other cells.
A layer of fatty cells that covers some neurons' axons and allows them to transmit information faster in the brain.
Cord or cable-like bundles of axons which carry messages to and from the body and brain.