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Neurons:  The Basics

Neurons: The Basics

Author: Laura Riness

This lesson will identify and define the parts of a neuron.  

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Terms to Know

The long tail-like structure that comes off of the cell body and sends signals along the cell and out to other cells.


The part of the neuron that branches out into many smaller parts, which receive signals from other neurons.

Myelin Sheath

A layer of fatty cells that covers some neurons' axons and allows them to transmit information faster in the brain.


Cord or cable-like bundles of axons which carry messages to and from the body and brain.


The central part of the neuron, which contains all the basic parts of a cell (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.); the cell body.