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Neurons:  The Basics

Neurons: The Basics

Author: Laura Riness

This lesson will identify and define the parts of a neuron.  

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Introduction to Psychology

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  • Soma

    The central part of the neuron, which contains all the basic parts of a cell (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.); the cell body.

  • Dendrites

    The part of the neuron that branches out into many smaller parts, which receive signals from other neurons.

  • Axon

    The long tail-like structure that comes off of the cell body and sends signals along the cell and out to other cells.

  • Myelin Sheath

    A layer of fatty cells that covers some neurons' axons and allows them to transmit information faster in the brain.

  • Nerves

    Cord or cable-like bundles of axons which carry messages to and from the body and brain.