+
Other Theories

Other Theories

Description:

In this lesson you will learn about the characteristics of three theoretical models of visual communications: the Lester/Huxley Model, Constructivism and Omniphasism.

(more)
See More
Try a College Course Free

Sophia’s self-paced online courses are a great way to save time and money as you earn credits eligible for transfer to over 2,000 colleges and universities.*

Begin Free Trial
No credit card required

25 Sophia partners guarantee credit transfer.

226 Institutions have accepted or given pre-approval for credit transfer.

* The American Council on Education's College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE Credit®) has evaluated and recommended college credit for 21 of Sophia’s online courses. More than 2,000 colleges and universities consider ACE CREDIT recommendations in determining the applicability to their course and degree programs.

Tutorial

What's Covered

Welcome to today's lesson on on three other theoretical models on visual communications. Specifically, this lesson will focus on:

  1. Constructivism
  2. Huxley/Lester Model
  3. Omniphasism

1. Constructivism

Constructivism is a sensory-based theory based on the idea that eye movements capture visual outline, and then the mind constructs understanding.

Term to Know

    • Constructivism
    • A sensory-based theory based on the idea that eye movements capture a visual outline and then the mind "constructs" understanding.

There are many theories by this name, but this one is specific to visual communication and you can think of it like visual blueprinting. This theory relates to how we perceive images directly. The basic idea is that our eyes are constantly moving as they scan the image.

So, if you look at this example below, your eye quickly scans the image and is able to figure out that it's a woman doing yoga.

If there was some sort of eye tracking machine as you took a look, you'd notice again that your eyes jump around and scan, and quickly discern what it's looking at-- even if you've had a short amount of time to do it or if the images are abstract.

IN CONTEXT

This plays a role in understanding things like billboards and ads that you pass along the way, like the highway or on the road somewhere.

You drive past those things pretty quickly, so you need to be able to place and design elements in a fashion where the viewer is able to construct the image or idea you're trying to promote really quickly.

2. Huxley/Lester Model

The Huxley/Lester model is a theory based on the work of Aldous Huxley and Paul Lester, which stressed the importance of sensing, selecting, and perceiving. It's called the Huxley/Lester model because Aldous Huxley began work that was later adopted and continued by Paul Lester.

Terms to Know

    • Huxley/Lester Model
    • Theory based on the work of Aldous Huxley and Paul Lester which stresses the importance of sensing, selecting and perceiving.
    • Aldous Huxley
    • Writer and experimental scientist whose credo was "The more you see, the more you know."
    • Paul Lester
    • Photographer and visual communications theorist whose theories stress the value of the study of the full gamut of media and media production techniques.

Aldous Huxley was a writer and experimental scientist whose credo was-- the more you see, the more you know. Huxley had quite an interesting life. He came from a lineage of scientists and-- believe it or not-- he had terrible vision and experienced blindness various times, prompting him to learn Braille. His problems with sight actually led him on a quest to better understand how we see. His theory was broken into stages that were built like a formula, where sensing plus selecting plus perceiving equaled seeing.



So the idea was that when you put all these pieces of the puzzle together, you can make sense of what you're looking at.

Now, Paul Lester is a photographer and visual communications theorist whose theories stress the value of the study of the full gamut of media and media production techniques. Paul Lester took over where Huxley left off, and took great interest in his studies and expanded on them. Paul Lester continues to work today, and he believes that it's important to use media in ways where images provide usefulness.

So, in his own words, “image has no use if the viewer's mind doesn't use them.” As feature image consumers and producers, you want to see images that you remember and make images that others remember.


3. Omniphasism

Omniphasism is a relatively new theory which attempts to combine the best thinking from previous theories.

Term to Know

    • Omniphasism
    • A relatively new theory which attempts to combine the best thinking from previous theories; Omniphasism means "all in balance," referring to its focus on the use of all abilities of the mind.

Omniphasism means "all in balance," referring to its focus on the use of all abilities of the mind. So again, it's much like the previous theories. The driving force behind this one is that when you combine your experiences, intelligence, intuition, association, and all these things-- that you make sense of what you see.

Look at the Absolute Vodka ad below.

These don't need images of the bottle, because the balance combination of your associations, experience, intuition and more allow you to figure out the message brand and idea-- even though these are rather abstract.


Summary

Well, that ends our lesson on the other theories of visual design. Specifically, today’s lesson covered constructivism, the Huxley/Lester model, and omniphasism.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR MARIO E. HERNANDEZ

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Huxley/Lester Model

    Theory based on the work of Aldous Huxley and Paul Lester which stresses the importance of sensing, selecting and perceiving.

  • Constructivism

    A sensory-based theory based on the idea that eye movements capture a visual outline and then the mind "constructs" understanding.

  • Omniphasism

    A relatively new theory which attempts to combine the best thinking from previous theories; Omniphasism means "all in balance", referring to its focus on the use of all abilities of the mind.

  • Aldous Huxley

    Writer and experimental scientist whose credo was "The more you see, the more you know."

  • Paul Lester

    Photographer and visual communications theorist whose theories stress the value of the study of the full gamut of media and media production techniques.