The following chart presents each letter of the Spanish alphabet on the left, with its corresponding pronunciation on the right. Letters with an asterisk are pronounced the same in Spanish as they are in English.
|b*||as in English|
|c*||s (soft) before an "e" or "i;" k (hard) before any other vowel; "cc" is pronounced "ks"|
|ch (one letter)||ch|
|d||softer than in English in the middle or at the end (in some dialects like "th" at middle or end)|
|f*||as in English|
|g||h (soft) before an "e" or "i;" g (hard) before other vowels|
|k*||as in English|
|l*||as in English|
|ll (one letter)||y|
|m*||as in English|
|n*||as in English|
|p*||as in English|
|q||k (never kw)|
|r||like "dd" in "ladder;" trilled/repeated at the beginning of a word|
|rr (one letter)||trilled/repeated|
|s*||as in English|
|t||softer than in English in the middle or at the end|
|v||like a "b"|
|w*||as in English|
|x||ks before vowels; s before consonants|
|y||ee as a vowel; as in English as a consonant|
Note that ch, ll, and rr are no longer considered official letters of the Spanish alphabet; however, many Spanish speakers treat them as such.
For the most part, Spanish sounds as it looks. Each vowel has the same pronunciation in every situation. There are only three stress rules in Spanish. By contrast, a book on English pronunciation contains a section on English stress rules which is 35 pages long! Once you have learned the sounds and rules presented in this section, you will be able to pronounce any word in Spanish!
Source: This content has been adapted from "Spanish for Nurses" by Stephanie Langston.