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Passive Voice of the Perfect System

Passive Voice of the Perfect System

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Author: Joseph Spirito
Description:

The Purpose of this tutorial is to give the instructions on how to form Passive Voice verbs of the Perfect system tenses.  The Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect.

The tutorial introduces the basics of the Passive voice.  The nature of its use and how it is distinguished from the Active voice.

The tutorial then refreshes the student on the formation of the Passive voice in the Present system.

The tutorial then gives the basic instructions of forming the Passive voice of the Perfects system.

The tutorial then breaks the formation down into the different steps and instructs the students how to find the basic forms used as the building blocks to form the Passives.  These two steps are the Principal Parts and which one to use and how to use it and then the Helping Verb "To Be"  and which forms to use with which tenses.

The tutorial then shows a model verb form and how to put the parts together to form the whole.

 

The tutorial does not go into translation.  The complexities of the translation of each tense will be taken up separately and in context

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Tutorial

Passive Voice Video

Source: You Tube

Formation

Using the model verb Voco lets for the Passive of the Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect.

The Four Principal Parts are:

Voco          Vocare              Vocavi                Vocatus, a, um

 

Thus the Perfect Passives are:

 

Vocatus, a, um sum            Vocati, ae, a   sumus

Vocatus, a, um es               Vocati, ae, a   estis

Vocatus, a, um est              Vocati, ae, a  sunt

 

The Pluperfect Passives are:

Vocatus, a, um eram                Vocati, ae, a eramus

Vocatus, a, um  eras                Vocati, ae, a eratis

Vocatus, a, um  erat                 Vocati, ae, a erant

 

The Future Perfect Passives are:

Vocatus, a, um ero                   Vocati, ae, a erimus

Vocatus, a, um eris                  Vocati, ae, a eritis

Vocatus, a, um  erit                  Vocati, ae, a erunt

The Helping Verb

The Helping Verb is the Verb "To Be."

The Helping Verb in English is: am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been.

To form the Perfect System Passives we use the proper forms of the Verb "To Be."

For the Perfect we use the present:  Sum, Es, Est, Sumus, Estis, Sunt.

For the Pluperfect we use the Imperfect: Eram, Eras, Erat, Eramus, Eratis, Erant.

For the Future Perfect we use the Future: Ero, Eris, Erit, Erimus, Eritis, Erunt.

 

Remember, we use the Imperfect and the Future to form the Active Voice of the Pluperfect and Future Perfect.  We just add them to a different stem.

Perfect Passive Participal

The Fourth Principal Part is the Perfect Passive Participle.

A Participle is a verbal adjective.  This is a form of a verb that is being used to modify a noun. 

As an Adjective, the PPP declines as a noun of the First and Second Declensions.

The declension and form is determined by the gender of the noun it is modifying.

Remember, as an Adjective, it must have the same Case, Number, and Gender as the noun that it modifies.

The Four Principal Parts

Most Verbs have Four Principal Parts. 

The first Principal Part is the 1st Person, Singular, Present Active form.

The Second Principal Part is the Present Active Infinitive.

The Third Principal Part is the 1st Person, Singular, Perfect, Active form.

The Fourth Principal Part is the Perfect Passive Participle.

Formation

Verbs in the Passive Voice are formed differently than verbs in the Active voice.

Present System Verbs, as we have seen, are formed simply by changing the Personal ending.  This means taking off the:  MOST MUST ISNT that we typically use and replacing it with R RIS TUR MUR MINI NTUR.  We have spent much time on these and mastered them already.

 

Perfect System verbs work very differently in the Passive Voice.

 

The way in which we form the Passive Voice of Verbs in the Perfect System is to find the Fourth Principal Part of the Verb and combine it with the appropriate helping verb.  This form will be composed of two separate words:  The Fourth PPP and the helping verb.

Voice

The voice of verb can be either Active or Passive.

 

The Voice tells whether the Subject of the sentence is acting or being acted upon.

 

In an Active voice sentence, the Subject performs the action in the sentence.

 

In a Passive Voice sentence,  the Subject does not perform any action and is instead acted upon.

Basic Instructions

~~Grammatica Latīna
Vōx Passīva – Tempus Perfectum, Plūsquamperfectum et Perfectum Futūrum

I.  Formation
The formation of the passive voice for the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect is quite simple.  For all three tenses, we begin with the fourth principal part – the perfect passive participle.  We then add a tense of the linking verb sum, esse to complete the conjugation.

e.g.   portō, portāre, portāvī, portātus – to carry

Perfect Passive:  Pluperfect Passive:  Future Perfect Passive: 

portātus, a sum  portātus, a eram  portātus, a erō
portātus, a es   portātus, erās  portātus, a eris
portātus, a, um est  portātus, a, um erat  portātus, a, um erit
portātī, ae sumus  portātī, ae erāmus  portātī, ae erimus
portātī, ae estis  portātī, ae erātis  portātī, ae eritis
portātī, ae, a sunt  portātī, ae, a erant  portātī, ae, a erint

they were carried  they had been carried they will have been carried

Notes:  1. The participle will always agree in number and gender with the subject
of the sentence.  e.g.  Aurēlia per urbem in lectīcā portāta est.
2. Remember!  Only transitive verbs can be made passive.  If the fourth
principal part ends in –ūrus, the verb cannot be made passive.
 3. The above rule works for all verbs in Latin, regardless of conjugation.

Source: The Very Wise Mr Schaffer

Exercises

~~Exercise A:
Translate the following sentences:

1. Servus, nōmine Pseudolus, in Forum missus est.
¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬-________________________________________________________________________________
2. Glīrēs ab Aurēliā ēmptī erant.
________________________________________________________________________________
3. Cum trīclīnium parātum erit, convīvae intrābunt.
________________________________________________________________________________
4. Servī iocō optimō dēlectātī sunt.
________________________________________________________________________________
(cont. on next page)
pāgina secunda
5. Ē culīnā magnus cachinnus audītus erat.
________________________________________________________________________________
6. Cum lepus ab Aurēliā inventus erit, Pseudolus pūniētur.
________________________________________________________________________________
7. “Tū, Pseudole,” inquit Aurēlia, “leporem emere nōn iussus es.”
________________________________________________________________________________
8. “Ego illō spectāculō miserābilī,” inquit Cornēlia, “valdē commōta sum.”
________________________________________________________________________________
9. Octō dēnāriī ā laniō acceptī sunt.
________________________________________________________________________________
10. “Cum ā Cornēliō salūtātī erimus,” inquit ūnus ē convīvīs, “servī eius nōs ad trīclīnium addūcent.” _____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise B:
Select the correct word, read aloud, and translate:

1. _______________ ā mātre vocāta erat.    Ancilla/Līberī/Eucleidēs
________________________________________________________________________________
2. _______________ ex īnsulā ēmissae sunt.  Fūmus/Ōrnāmenta/Flammae
________________________________________________________________________________
3. _______________ in mēnsā positus erat.  Pānis/Glīrēs/Mappa
________________________________________________________________________________
4. _______________ ā laniō minūtum est.  Dēnāriī/Pretium/Porcus
________________________________________________________________________________
5. _______________ in Forō comparātī erant.   Ōva/Glīrēs/Porcus
________________________________________________________________________________
6. _______________ ā servō allāta erunt.  Māla/Mappa/Mulier
________________________________________________________________________________
7. _______________ in hāc tabernā ēmpta est.  Carō/Holera/Lepus
________________________________________________________________________________
8. _______________ ā līberīs petītae sunt.  Adstantēs/Auxilium/Mātrēs
________________________________________________________________________________
pāgina tertia
Exercise C:
Change each verb from active to passive voice, keeping the same tense, person, and number.  Translate both verbs!

1. dūxit  _______________ 2. portāvistī  _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
3. posuerat  _______________ 4. oppressimus   _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
5. commōvī  _______________ 6. accēpit  _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
7. mīserāmus  _______________ 8. audīverātis  _______________
_______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
9. tulērunt  _______________
_______________ _______________
Exercise D:
Give the Latin for the following:

1. Vegetables had been bought in the Forum by the slaves.
________________________________________________________________________________
2. The food was cooked in the kitchen.
________________________________________________________________________________
3. The table has been brought by the slaves into the middle of the dining room.
________________________________________________________________________________
4. Cerberus had been dragged from the kingdom of Pluto.
________________________________________________________________________________
5. When the dinner will have been finished, the guests will carry food away in napkins.
________________________________________________________________________________

Source: Ecce Romani Book 2, Chapter 32 Exercises

Questions

What is the Passive Voice?

 

STUDENTS SHOULD ASK:  Given what we know of the tenses and the translation of the other Present System Passives.  How are the tenses of the Passive Voice Translated?

 

Be prepared to translate the attached sheets tomorrow, paying particular attention to the verbs.

 

Be ready to pick out each verb and be able to identify the tense and voice from the form.