PCN-521 Model Matrix
Directions: Below is a matrix you will use throughout this course to gather and organize information. It is suggested you save this document for future use as it will be a helpful study guide in preparation for your licensure exam.
Ivan Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and Bandura
Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Alfred Adler
Murray Bowen, Michael Kerr, Philip Guerin, Thomas Fogart, Monica McGoldrick, Betty Carter, David Schnarch
Salvador Minuchin, Harry Aponte, Marion Lindblad-Goldberg, Jose Szapocznik
Jay Haley,Madanes, Salvador Minuchin, Jackson, Bateson, Erikson, Minuchin, Palazzoli
Downward Arrow, ABCs, match thoughts to feelings, replace unhelpful thoughts with useful thoughts, replace negative self-talk, and explore alternate schemas
Anamnesis, free association method, interpretation of Freudian slips and mistakes, analysis/interpretation of dreams/symbols
Analyzing family relationships, Use insight and therapeutic relationship to increase clients’ levels of differentiation.
Boundaries or rules for relating, enactment,
Problem-solving, solution finding, initiating behavioral change (Zarate et al ., 2012)
How do problems arise and persist?
Recurring faulty cognitions result in problematic response patterns
Problems are rooted in the persons unconscious mind
A family lacking differentiation may become emotionally fused; an undifferentiated family “ego mass.”
Problems arise from strained relationship between family members
Problems arise as a response to the individual’s social environment
To modify specific patterns of thinking/behaviors and to alleviate the presenting symptoms
Alleviation of symptoms and complaints, changes in life adjustment, changes in personality structure, resolution of the transference neurosis.
Decreasing emotional reactivity to chronic anxiety
Clear boundaries between all subsystems, clear distinction between marital/couple and parental subsystem, effective parental hierarchy and severing of cross-generational coalitions, family structure that promotes development/growth of individuals and family.
(Egan, G. (2013). The skilled helper: A problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping. Cengage Learning.)
To identify problems, come up with strategic plans for change implementation and find solutions to the problems
How does change occur?
Changed beliefs lead to changed behaviors
Change occurs when contingencies of reinforcement are altered
By analyzing the subconscious, revelation about ones problems come to light and one is able to determine what is causing their problems.
Through differentiation of emotions, there is self-realization, de-triangulation, and relational experiments
Change occurs through restructuring of the family by the therapist after determining which relationship are strained or are too much, making compliments, shaping competence, unbalancing, and challenging families worldview.
(Hoffman, L. (1981). Foundations of family therapy: A conceptual framework for systems change. )
The therapist is actively involved in helping the client implement changes which can be pathological by assisting them to make a strategic plan, execute it and measure the change plan’s game-winning outcomes (Gurman, 2014).
Ask questions to challenge assumptions rather than directly challenging
Teach family that emotional problems are caused by unrealistic beliefs
Establish the boundary of the therapy situation e.g. providing a safe environment and establishment of a warm and caring therapeutic culture.
Naturally promote clients’ level of differentiation through interaction.
Use process questions to help clients see how conflict they are experiencing now is related to patterns they observed earlier in life
Therapist’s job is to find way to help family achieve desired change, Do whatever it takes to make change happen. Therapists role can be producer, stage director, protagonist, and narrator or co-author
The therapist has a problem-solving function and a solution finding role (Griffin & Greene, 2013).
Acts as a referee or coach and helps individuals initiate some behavioral changes
Set goals, Examine responses and therapeutic outcomes.