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PHL/320T CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

PHL/320T CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

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PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

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PHL 320 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourse.com/category/phl-320/

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PHL 320 Week 1 Apply: Creating an Argument

Complete the "Creating an Argument" homework assignment in Connect®.

For each statement, select the conclusion statement that would turn these statements into arguments.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete this assignment. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don't worry, this might happen after your due date.

Tipsarevic is unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year.

Multiple Choice

•       

He will be a strong competitor, though.

•       

Smith is also unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year.

•       

He has a nagging leg injury, plus he doesn’t have the drive he once had.

•       

He did not win the U.S. Open last year either.

John Montgomery has been the Eastern Baseball League’s best closer this season. Unfortunately, when a closer gets shelled, as Montgomery did last night, it takes him a while to recover.

Multiple Choice

•       

There are other pitchers on his team who could be closers.

•       

In fact, his team may want to think about trading him.

•       

Nobody will say he is the best closer after that performance.

•       

He may never recover.

There is trouble in the Middle East, there is a recession at home, and all economic indicators are trending downward.

Multiple Choice

•       

It would be nice to see economic indicators trending upward instead.

•       

Most news media agree that this is the case.

•       

There are similar conditions in other regions throughout the world.

•       

It seems likely, then, that the only way the stock market can go is down.

“It may be true that people, not guns, kill people.


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PHL 320 Week 1 Apply: Creating an Argument

PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

**********************************************

PHL 320 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourse.com/category/phl-320/

**********************************************

PHL 320 Week 1 Apply: Creating an Argument

Complete the "Creating an Argument" homework assignment in Connect®.

For each statement, select the conclusion statement that would turn these statements into arguments.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete this assignment. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don't worry, this might happen after your due date.

Tipsarevic is unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year.

Multiple Choice

•       

He will be a strong competitor, though.

•       

Smith is also unlikely to win the U.S. Open this year.

•       

He has a nagging leg injury, plus he doesn’t have the drive he once had.

•       

He did not win the U.S. Open last year either.

John Montgomery has been the Eastern Baseball League’s best closer this season. Unfortunately, when a closer gets shelled, as Montgomery did last night, it takes him a while to recover.

Multiple Choice

•       

There are other pitchers on his team who could be closers.

•       

In fact, his team may want to think about trading him.

•       

Nobody will say he is the best closer after that performance.

•       

He may never recover.

There is trouble in the Middle East, there is a recession at home, and all economic indicators are trending downward.

Multiple Choice

•       

It would be nice to see economic indicators trending upward instead.

•       

Most news media agree that this is the case.

•       

There are similar conditions in other regions throughout the world.

•       

It seems likely, then, that the only way the stock market can go is down.

“It may be true that people, not guns, kill people.

Multiple Choice

•       

There are many reasons why people kill people."

•       

But people with guns kill more people than people without guns. As long as the number of lethal weapons in the hands of the American people continues to grow, so will the murder rate.”

•       

It may also be true that people hate one another."

•       

There are a lot of people who own guns."

As a long-time customer, you’re already taking advantage of our money management expertise and variety of investment choices.

Multiple Choice

•       

We have spent years building this expertise and developing a variety of investment choices.

•       

That’s a good reason for consolidating your other eligible assets into an IRA with us.

•       

We always like to offer our long-time customers additional options.

•       

Many other customers also take advantage of our expertise and variety.

Yes, I charge a little more than other dentists.

Multiple Choice

•       

But I feel I give better service. So my billing practices are justified.

•       

But I don’t charge as much as I could.

•       

You should see what my dentist charges me, though.

•       

And I offer services that other dentists don’t always offer.

Pornography often depicts women as servants or slaves or as otherwise inferior to men.

Multiple Choice

•       

Pornography is much more prevalent than it used to be thanks to the Internet.

•       

In light of that, it seems reasonable to expect to find more women than men who are upset by pornography.

•       

Most pornography is created by men.

•       

Pornography depicts women in other ways, as well.

Fears that chemicals in teething rings and soft plastic toys may cause cancer may be justified.

Multiple Choice

•       

Chemicals have been used in such items for years.

•       

Cancer is one of the biggest health concerns society faces.

•       

There are many other things that also cause cancer.

•       

Last week, the Consumer Product Safety Commission issued a report confirming that low amounts of DEHP, known to cause liver cancer in lab animals, may be absorbed from certain infant products.

The Carrie Diaries isn’t very good.

Multiple Choice

•       

It’s just a repackage of Sex and the City.

•       

I don’t know what the author was thinking when they wrote it.

•       

It is one of many bad books I’ve read lately.

•       

I checked it out of the library because I thought it would be good.

Carl would like to help out, but he won’t be in town.

Multiple Choice

•       

He might not have been much help anyway.

•       

We’ll have to find someone else who owns a truck.

•       

He should be back in town the following week.

•       

He is going to visit his grandmother, who is ill.

PHL 320 Week 2 Apply Vague Statements

PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

**********************************************

PHL 320 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourse.com/category/phl-320/

**********************************************

PHL 320 Week 2 Apply: Vague Statements

Complete the "Vague Statements" homework assignment in Connect®.

Each of the questions in Connect® contains a statement in vague language. For each question, select the rewritten statement that contains the clearest language. 

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don't worry; this might happen after your due date.

Advertisement: “The Aquaclear water filter—it really will improve the taste and odor of your water.”  Which of the following is rewritten in language that is clear rather than vague?

Multiple Choice

•       

The Aquaclear water filter will improve your life.

•       

The Aqaclear water filter change the way you think about water filters.

•       

The Aquaclear water filter will make you think you have never really had water before.

•       

The Aquaclear water filter will improve the taste and odor of your water by removing dirt and minerals from the water.

Property owner, showing his property to a potential buyer: “The lot extends back to about where that large oak tree stands.”

Multiple Choice

•       

The lot in back ends at the property line.

•       

The lot extends almost to where that large oak tree stands.

•       

The lot extends 50 feet from the back of the house, which is near the oak tree.

•       

We tend to think of the oak tree as the property line, since it is near enough.

“Renaissance music just doesn’t do it for me.”

Multiple Choice

•       

"Renaissance music simply lulls me to sleep.”

•       

“I don’t think I prefer to listen to Renaissance music.”

•       

"There is just something about Renaissance music I don’t like.”

•       

“I can’t say why it is I don’t care for Renaissance music.”

It seems clear that within the next ten years, they’ll have produced a machine that can really think.

Multiple Choice

•       

In the next 10 years, the company will have produced a machine that outperforms how a human thinks and makes day-to-day decisions.

•       

Someday they’ll have produced a machine that can think like a human.

•       

It seems clear that within the next 10 years, they should make some progress in developing thinking machines.

•       

In the next 10 years, they should be able to produce a machine that can think in some fashion.

The president has determined that tax reform will be his first priority during his second term in office.

Multiple Choice

•       

Some believe the president will make tax reform a priority in his second term.

•       

The president will tackle tax reform as his first priority during his second term in office, which is in two years.

•       

The president has promised to make tax reform a priority.

•       

The president thinks that tax reform will be a priority during his second term.

“If I were you, I’d watch out for the boss.”

Multiple Choice

•       

"Watch out for the boss; he’s grumpy today.”

•       

“If I were you, I’d keep a close eye out for the boss.”

•       

“You may want to avoid the boss today if you can.”

•       

“There’s the boss; you may want to head the other way.”

Doctor: “The arrhythmia you are experiencing indicates you should lay off jogging for a while.”

Multiple Choice

•       

"The arrhythmia you are experiencing is a serious issue that requires treatment."

•       

"The arrhythmia you are experiencing indicates you should consider jogging less often."

•       

"Your arrhythmia makes me think you should be careful when you jog."

•       

"Because your heart beats too fast, you should stop jogging for the next 30 days. "

“Well, let’s see. To get to the Woodward Mall, go down this street a couple of blocks and then turn right. Go through several stoplights, turn left, and go just a short way. You can’t miss it.”

Multiple Choice

•       

“You want the Woodward Mall? Just head west and you’ll see it in front of you. You can’t miss it.”

•       

"The Woodward Mall? You may want to use your GPS, since getting there is a little tricky.”

•       

"In order to get to Woodward Mall, drive south on Main Street for two blocks until you get to Dover Street. After you get to Dover Street, make a right on Foxwood Drive. You will drive on Foxwood Drive for three miles until you see Woodward Lane. Turn left on Woodward Lane, and you have arrived at Woodward Mall."

•       

“Well, let’s see. To get to the Woodward Mall, you’re going to need to make three lefts and then a right. You can’t miss it.”

Said at a party: “What did I think of the concert? Yeah, I was at the concert.”

Multiple Choice

•       

"What did I think of the concert? I guess I had a good time.”

•       

“What did I think of the concert? I haven’t really thought about it.”

•       

“What did I think of the concert? I thought it was pretty good. You should have been there.”

•       

“What did I think of the concert? I haven’t really thought about it.”

During his first news conference of the year, the president said today that his administration was going to crack down even harder on international terrorism.

Multiple Choice

•       

During his first news conference of the year, the president admitted that the war on international terrorism would be long and difficult.

•       

During the president’s first news conference of the year, the administration outlined processes and procedures it will put in place to combat international terrorism.

•       

During his first news conference of the year, the president backed away from earlier statements about how his administration was going to crack down even harder on international terrorism.

•       

During his first news conference of the year, the president will address what he plans to do about international terrorism.

PHL 320 Week 3 Apply Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

**********************************************

PHL 320 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourse.com/category/phl-320/

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PHL 320 Week 3 Apply: Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Complete the "Inductive and Deductive Reasoning" homework assignment in Connect®. 

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don't worry; this might happen after your due date

Required information

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (1)

Madderly wins the decision, provided that the referee scores the fight in Madderly’s favor.

The referee did score the fight in favor of Madderly.

Therefore, Madderly wins the decision.      R = Referee scores the fight in Madderly’s favor

M = Madderly wins the decision.

Required information

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (2)

The generator works.

The generator works only if the polarity of the circuit has been reversed.

The polarity of the circuit has been reversed.       G = The generator works.

P = Polarity has been reversed.

Required information

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (3)

Failure to melt at 2,600 degrees is sufficient for determining that this item is not made of steel.

The item failed to melt at 2,600 degrees.

The item is not made of steel.  F = The item fails to melt at 2600 degrees.

S = The item is made of steel.

Required information

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…"

Symbolize the following arguments using “if . . . then . . .” and “not- . . .” statements in place of the special symbols → and  ~. (Note: Do not enter any periods in your response.)

Symbolizing Arguments using "If...Then..." and "not-…" (4)

If the new generator will work, then the polarity of the circuit has been reversed.

But the polarity of the circuit has not been reversed.

The new generator will not work.     G = New generator will work.

P = Polarity has been reversed.

Providing Causal Hypotheses to Explain Findings 1

Can mere reading of articles about dieting cause teenage girls to resort to extreme weight-loss measures? According to a study published in the journal Pediatrics (reported by Carla K. Johnson of the Associated Press in January 2007), the answer might well be yes. In the study, female middle-school students were interviewed in 1999 and again in 2004, and their heights and weights were measured. Those in the first interview who said they frequently read magazine articles about dieting were more likely than those who said they never read such articles to report in the second survey that they indulged in extreme weight-loss measures like vomiting and taking laxatives. The effect was present whether or not the girls were overweight or considered their weight important when they started reading the articles, the researchers said.

Propose two explanations for the findings that seem likely or possible.

PHL 320 Week 4 Apply Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies

PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

**********************************************

PHL 320 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourse.com/category/phl-320/

**********************************************

PHL 320 Week 4 Apply: Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies

Complete the "Rhetorical Strategies and Fallacies" homework assignment in Connect®.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don't worry; this might happen after your due date.

Bobby may be a good bookkeeper….

Select a statement about Bobby that uses innuendo.

Multiple Choice

•       

But he has worked hard to get where he is at.

•       

But he has a good staff to help him out.

•       

But you would expect that from someone who majored in accounting like he did.

•       

But you’ll notice he has a ton of bills.

If the Superintendent is so committed to increasing the scores in public school….

Select a statement about the Superintendent that uses the loaded questions strategy.

Multiple Choice

•       

Why are so many students failing and teachers resigning?

•       

Shouldn’t we do something nice for him?

•       

Why do we need to consider replacing him?

•       

Why don’t people notice?

Select a statement about college students that uses hyperbole.

Multiple Choice

•       

College students are too idealistic and don’t know what it’s like in the real world.

•       

If college students are so poor, why are they always riding around on fancy bikes and scooters?

•       

While many students start college, not all will graduate.

•       

All college students will graduate.

I simply won’t go into that department store....

Select a statement that uses stereotype.

Multiple Choice

•       

It’s full of snobbish people who disguise their happiness with designer handbags and shoes.

•       

It is way too far from where I live anyway.

•       

They have poor customer service.

•       

It never carries the clothes I like.

Sally had a hamburger for dinner and does not feel well.

Which of the following statements would result in the post hoc ergo propter hoc rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

•       

It was the hamburger that made her not feel well.

•       

She should not have eaten dinner.

•       

Sally is overreacting because her hamburger was overcooked.

•       

There must be a flu bug going around.

Brianna is the top-performing cheerleader and captain of the cheer team.

Which of the following statements would result in the ad hominem rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

•       

She is the real reason the team is so good.

•       

However, we know she, like all cheerleaders, was selected because of her good looks.

•       

She has natural talent that most of the rest of the team don’t.

•       

She must spend a lot of time practicing to be so good.

I received a bonus within my first six weeks on the job.

Which of the following statements would result in the hasty generalization rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

•       

So I know I am going to receive a bonus often.

•       

I have heard the company is pretty generous when it comes to bonus opportunities.

•       

I am glad my efforts don’t go unnoticed.

•       

I worked hard to earn that bonus.

You can start exercising….

Which of the following statements would result in the either/or rhetorical fallacy?

Multiple Choice

•       

In order to fit in with the rest of us.

•       

Or die at a young age.

•       

Because it is the right thing to do.

•       

So that it becomes a habit.

He knows that diamond mining is a dangerous job.

Which of the following statements would result in the red herring or smoke screen fallacy?

Multiple Choice

•       

But he also knows that lots of other jobs are dangerous.

•       

But he has always been something of a daredevil.

•       

But how else can he earn his paycheck to care for his family?

•       

But he knows he won’t have to work forever.

If you like to clean every day….

Which of the following statements would result in the slippery slope fallacy?

Multiple Choice

•       

Then you will always have something on your agenda.

•       

You can know that your house will never be a mess.

•       

People are likely to notice.

•       

It could lead to you becoming OCD, so you probably should not clean every day.

Your employer has given you the task of increasing overall production within your department using the same number of permanent employees but no additional hours to complete the work. Which of the following is a possible solution?

Multiple Choice

•       

Turning a blind eye while employees work overtime.

•       

Incentivizing your employees to work harder.

•       

Eliminating breaks and lunches.

•       

Cutting vacation and sick time.

Your company wants to hire a third-party vendor to handle all of the customer service calls because they are a well-known leader in the industry with many clients. You are the manager of the customer service department for your company and have consistently reduced expenses over the past three years. Which of the following is an argument you could present to your employer to not hire a third-party vendor to handle customer service calls?

Multiple Choice

•       

Convince your employer that although the third party has many clients, not all are satisfied.

•       

Show your employer where you could cut costs even further, making it more cost effective to keep customer service in house.

•       

Impose strict new customer service policies on your department.

•       

Let your employer know that you will resign if they pursue this option.

PHL 320 Week 5 Apply Analyzing an Argument

PHL/320T

CRITICAL THINKING AND DECISION MAKING IN BUSINESS

The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

**********************************************

PHL 320 Entire Course Link

https://uopcourse.com/category/phl-320/

**********************************************

PHL 320 Week 5 Apply: Analyzing an Argument

Complete the "Analyzing an Argument" homework assignment in Connect®.

Note: You have only 1 attempt available to complete assignments. Grades must be transferred manually to eCampus by your instructor. Don't worry; this might happen after your due date.

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—the harm principle. Shoplifting harms those from whom one steals. “Unfortunately, you did not appropriately answer the question."

Laws against shoplifting

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—the harm principle. Forgery tends to harm others. “Unfortunately, you did not appropriately answer the question .

Laws against forgery

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—Legal paternalism, for obvious reasons, but suicide often harms the family of the deceased. Thus, one can also imagine an argument against some suicides based on the harm principle. “The question was not answered correctly."

Laws against suicide

reasons, but suicide often harms the family of the deceased. Thus, one can also imagine an argument against some suicides based on the harm principle.

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—The offense principle is the probably most relevant because the practice in question is found highly offensive by most people. But one might also include the harm principle because spitting in public can spread disease-causing organisms. “The question was not entirely answered correctly. "

Laws against spitting on the sidewalk

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—legal paternalism; harm principle. One runs the risk of doing harm both to oneself and others by driving under the influence. “Unfortunately, you did not appropriately answer the question ."

Laws against driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

“Good job! You did an above average job of answering the questions."

Laws against adultery

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—the offense principle because same-sex marriages are offensive to some people; and legal moralism because some people believe that homosexuality is immoral. “The question was not entirely answered correctly. "

Laws against marriage between two people of the same sex

Required information

For each of the following kinds of laws, pick at least one of the four grounds for justification—legal moralism, the harm principle, legal paternalism, and the offense principle—and construct an argument designed to justify the law. You may not agree either with the law or with the argument; the exercise is to see if you can connect the law to the (allegedly) justifying principle. For many laws, more than one kind of justification is possible, so there can be more than one good answer for many of these.

Overall instructor remarks:

Example—legal paternalism. The reasoning is that such laws prevent a person from seeking, or at least from finding, medical treatment that might be incompetent. (Justifications of laws that forbid one group from doing something in order to protect another group from doing something to itself are sometimes said to be based on “impure” paternalism. In the “pure” variety, the group restrained is the same group being protected.) “The question was not entirely answered correctly. "

Laws that require people to have licenses before they practice medicine