Ferns are a type of plant called a seedless vascular plant.
Vascular plants are able to transport materials through internal structures called xylem and phloem.
The xylem of a vascular plant is a vein that allows the transport of water and minerals throughout the plant.
The phloem of a vascular plant is able to transport sugar and nutrients to all parts of the plant that energy is needed.
Fern leaves are organized as many small leaves that make up a large leaf called a frond. The upper surface of fern fronds are covered in a cuticle that helps the plant hold water and prevent it from escaping.
Ferns reproduce by spores which develop on the underside of leaves. The spores are carried by wind and water. When a spore is carried to an area that is shaded and moist, a new fern plant grows.