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Plyometrics

Plyometrics

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Author: Lyneene Orsini
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This Practical Class Handout comprises some theory and practical content that will be delivered during week 5 of 700073 practical classes. Maximum benefit will be achieved from these classes if you pre-read and bring this handout with you to class. Bring a pen also as spaces are provided in this document for you to make supplementary notes.

 

Note 1: Appropriate clothing for physical activity (exercise footwear, shorts/track pants, training shirt) is essential for participation in these classes!!

 

Note 2:  IMPORTANT – This tutorial involves activities that are physically demanding. Any student who is suffering any health  / injury condition that may affect their ability to perform these activities safely and without injury risk must speak to their tutor for clearance to participate. Any student who is on a restricted participation plan must abide by the participation restrictions placed on them. If any safe participation doubt exists it is the responsibility of the student to query the staff and seek advice regarding their ability to participate safely in this class!! 

 

 

PLYOMETRICS

Plyometrics is a type of training designed to produce fast powerful movements and improve the function of the nervous system. The process is often referred to as the stretch shortening cycle. The SSC consists of an eccentric muscle action followed (stretch under tension) followed by a rapid concentric action. The SSC allows Kinetic Energy to be stored as Elastic Energy in stretched and deformed muscle structures.

This energy can then be returned to assist the active shortening. At the same time the stretch activates the muscle spindle (stretch reflex), which increases the force of the agonist and inhibits the antagonist.

Potential Energy (PE) is transformed into Kinetic Energy (KE) through downward acceleration. The elastic structures are deformed on impact. Energy is then stored in the elastic components eg. Bones, flesh, muscle also shoes and the surface itself.

The concentric phase should occur immediately after the completion of the pre-stretch phase. A delay will reduce the use of elastic energy and enhanced neural facilitation through the stretch reflex. A muscle will contract more forcefully and quickly from a pre-stretched position. The more rapid the pre-stretch, the more forceful the concentric contraction.

 

Plyometrics training results in:

·                The quicker mobilisation of innervation impulses.

·                The recruitment of most motor units and their corresponding muscle fibres

·                An increase in the firing rate of the motor neurons

·                The transformation of strength into explosive power.

 

Technique

It is important to land in the pre-stretched, or bent (arms/legs) position. The transition from the pre-stretch phase should be smooth, continuous and as swift as possible.

Repeated reactive training induces noticeable fatigue in the concentric work capacity. This fatigue is characterised by increases in the duration of the contact time therefore decreasing the effectiveness

 

Strength training tends to increase musculo-tendinous stiffness while flexibility training tends to increase musculo-tendinous stretchability. The ratio of training should be altered to maximise the use of elastic energy while minimising the chance of injury.

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Tutorial

What are Plyometrics

Explosive Edge Athletics' Athletic Performance Assistant, Matt Neufeld, brings us this highly informational short video pertaining to the concepts of plyometrics.

Class activity 1

After watching the youtube clip complete the following questions:

  1. in your own words describe what plyometrics are.
  2. describe its benefits for sport performance

What are plyometrics

 

Plyometrics is a type of training designed to produce fast powerful movements and improve the function of the nervous system.

The term plyometrics can be used to describe any exercise that allows the athlete to take advantage of the stretch-shortening cycle to produce explosive movement

Squat Jump

Squat jumps are a plyometric exercise that burn a high number of calories and tone the glutes and thighs fast.

Squat Jumps

 

Lower Body Plyometric Exercises (Low Intensity)

 

Squat Jumps

1.     Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, trunk flexed forward slightly with back straight in a neutral position. Arms should be in the ready position with elbows flexed at approximately 90.

2.     Lower body where thighs are parallel to ground and immediately explode upwards vertically and drive arms up. Do not hold a squat position before jumping up keep the time between dipping down and jumping up to a minimum.

3.     Land on both feet. Rest for 1-2 seconds and repeat
Prior to takeoff extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) to ensure proper mechanics.

Jump to box

 

  1.  Stand facing box with feet slightly wider than hip-width apart.
  2. Lower body into a semi-squat position and immediately jump up onto box. Do not hold a squat position before jumping up keep the time between dipping down and jumping up to a minimum.
  3. Feet should land softly on box. Step back down (not jump back down) and repeat

Lateral Box Jump

Lateral jump to box

 

1.     Stand side on to box with feet slightly wider than hip-width apart.

2.     Lower body into a semi-squat position and jump up onto box. Do not hold a squat position before jumping up keep the time between dipping down and jumping up to a minimum.

3.     Feet should land softly on box. Step back down (not jump back down) and repeat.

Class Activity 2

Highlight 2 sports in where the lateral jump to box would be specific to meeting their training needs.

Split Squat Jumps

Split Squat Jumps

 

  1. Stand with feet hip width apart. Take left leg and step back approximately 2 feet standing on the ball of back foot.
  2. Feet should be positioned at a staggered stance with head and back erect and straight in a neutral position.
  3. Lower body by bending at right hip and knee until thigh is parallel to floor then immediately explode vertically. Prior to takeoff extend the ankles to their maximum range (full plantar flexion) ensure proper mechanics
  4. Switch feet in the air so that the back foot lands forward and vice versa.

Tuck Jump

 

1.     Stand with feet shoulder-width apart, knees slightly bent, with arms at sides.

2.     Jump up bringing knees up to chest.

3.     Land on balls of feet and repeat immediately.

4.     Remember to reduce ground contact time by landing soft on feet and springing into air.

 

Class Activity 3

Create a short video clip explaining and demonstrating how to execute a tuck jump. (max 25 seconds)

Email your video to

l.orsini@uw.........

Lateral Box Push Offs

Lateral Box Push offs

  1. Stand to side of box and place the left foot on top of box.

  2. Push off the box using the left leg only and explode vertically as high as possible. Drive the arms forward and up for maximum height.

  3. Land with right foot on the box and left foot on the ground to the other side of the box

  4. Repeat from this side.

Bounding

Alternate leg bound. A form of plyometrics training. Essential for sprinters, especially in the acceration phase.

Bounding

 

1.     Jog into the start of the drill for forward momentum.

2.     After a few feet, forcefully push off with the left foot and bring the leg forward. At same time drive your right arm forward.

3.     Repeat with other leg and arm

4.     This exercise is an exaggerated running motion focusing on foot push-off and air time.

Box drills with rings

 

1.     Stand with feet slightly wider than hip-width apart with your body facing the first ring.

2.     Hop forward using both feet and land in first ring.

3.     Now hop to the left and land in the ring to the side. Now jump backwards to land in ring behind you. Finish by jumping to your right to land in final ring.

4.     Rest and repeat. Remember to keep ground contact time between bounds to a minimum. Hurdle Jumps

Class Activity 4

Create a diagram using arrows to describe how to perform this exercise

Lateral Hurdle Jump

Lateral Hurdle Jump

 

 

  1. Stand beside object to be cleared. 
  2. Bring knees up and jump vertically but also laterally off ground and over the barrier.
  3. Land on both feet and immediately jump the other direction over barrier.
  4. Try not to pause between jumps or sink down into a squat position.

Zig Zag Hops

 

 

1.     Stand to the left of an agility ladder or similar object approximately 1-2 feet away.

2.     Forcefully push off both feet and land the on the other side of the ladder.

3.     Repeat and land feet back on the other side, continue repeating and so on down the ladder.

4. Do not "double hop" upon each landing and keep ground contact time to a minimum.

Single Leg Tuck Jump

Single Leg Tuck Jumps

This is the same as the tuck jump exercise above only one leg is used. Upon landing another jump is performed immediately with minimal ground contact time and with the same leg for the desired number of repetitions. This is repeated for the other leg after a rest period. Single leg plyometric exercises are typically more advanced and require greater strength and balance. They are suitable for sports were a takeoff is completed on one leg.

Single Leg Lateral Hops

 

1.     Start by standing on one leg with your hands on your waist or at your sides.

2.     Proceed to hop to the side while maintaining your balance and hop back to the starting position.

3.     You can place a rope on the ground or any object on the ground. The object can be small in size and height or large to increase difficulty.

Repeat continuously

Depth Jumps

 

1.     Stand on box with toes close to edge, feet shoulder width apart.

2.     Step off (do not jump off) box and land on both feet. Immediately jump up as high as possible and reach up with both hands towards. The jump should be vertical with no horizontal movement.

3.     Ground contact time should be short unlike in the diagram. Landing should be soft. Note: Start with a box height of 30cm. Intensity can be increased by gradually increasing the box height to a maximum of 107 cm but this is only for experienced athletes with a substantial strength training background.

Overhead Throws

Overhead Throws

 

 

1.     Stand with one foot in front (staggered stance) with knees slightly bent.

2.     Pull medicine ball back behind head and forcefully throw ball forward as far as possible into the wall.

3.     Catch ball on the bounce from the wall and repeat according to prescribed repetitions. Keep the time between pulling the ball back and starting the throw (transition phase) to a minimum. Can also be completed with a partner instead of a wall.

Class Activity 5

Name the main muscles involved in overhead throws

Side Throws

 

1.     Stand with feet hip-width apart; place left foot approximately one foot in front of right foot.

2.     Hold medicine ball with both hands and arms only slightly bent.

3.     Swing ball over to the right hip and forcefully underhand toss ball forward to a partner or wall. Keep the stomach drawn in to maximize proper usage of muscle.

4.     Catch ball on the bounce from your partner or wall and repeat. 

Plyometric Push Up challenge

Plyometric Push Up

 

1.     Start by getting into a push-up position.

2.     Lower yourself to the ground and then explosively push up so that your hands leave the ground.

3.     Catch your fall with your hands and immediately lower yourself into a push-up again and repeat.

Laboratory Task 1

 

Create a plyometric drill specific to your sport.

You will need to list the equipment needed and the drill instructions

Laboratory Task 2

 

Once each activity is demonstrated by your tutor the following task requires that you complete each of the following activities and record your score.  

 

Be sure to follow an appropriate WARM-UP protocol before attempting the drills!!

 

Plyometric Drill Scores

 

1.     Single Leg Hop Right Leg /Left Leg: Measure how far you can hop from each leg.

1st attempt:  Left leg ___________________       Right leg ___________________

2nd attempt: Left leg ___________________        Right leg ___________________

 

2.     Standing Leap: Measure how far you can leap vertically from a two feet stance.

1st attempt: ___________________

2nd attempt: ___________________

 

3.     Standing Jump: Measure how far you can jump from a two feet stance.

1st attempt: ___________________

2nd attempt: ___________________

 

4.     Depth Jump: Measure how far you can leap vertically from a drop.

1st attempt: ___________________

2nd attempt: ___________________

 

5.     Single Arm Standing Push Pass with Soccer Ball: Measure how far you can push the soccer ball from a front-on standing position.

1st attempt:  Left arm ___________________      Right arm ___________________

2nd attempt: Left arm ___________________      Right arm ___________________

 

6.     Double Arm Standing Push Pass with Medicine Ball: Measure how far you can push the medicine ball from a front-on standing position.

1st attempt: ___________________

2nd attempt: ___________________

 

7.     Double Arm Sitting Push Pass with Medicine Ball: Measure how far you can push the medicine ball from a sitting cross leg position.

1st attempt: ___________________

2nd attempt: ___________________