There are two primary uses for prompting and fading within skill repertoire building. The first, errorless learning, is used for teaching new skills and mass trials. It is a procedure used to teach a new skill involving the immediate prompting of the response during the initial teaching stages and systematic removal of prompts to avoid errors.
As a behavior technician, it is your job to ensure the patient succeeds. All of the examples of prompt fading that you have watched so far in this section have been examples of errorless learning. The prompt is faded systematically across trials to prevent errors until the patient can respond correctly without a prompt.
Keep in mind the following terms for errorless learning:
Most-to-least prompting means that you start with providing a prompt that provides the most assistance and fade to a prompt that provides the least assistance across trials in an effort to prevent errors.
Most-to-least prompting is a fading procedure using stronger, more intrusive prompts during initial instruction and progressing to less intrusive prompts over time to enable success and independence.
This method guarantees initial success and helps the patient contact, or receive, reinforcement, making learning fun!
With this method, use the most intrusive prompts first to ensure the patient’s response is correct. Once the patient begins the response with prompts, fade to a prompt that provides less assistance.
This method ensures initial success and helps the patient earn reinforcement. As the prompt is faded, the instruction becomes a discriminative stimulus with stimulus control over the response.
EXAMPLETarget: Sweeping the floor
OK, I'm going to help you get some of these other areas. OK?
All right. So we're gonna go put the broom all the way to the crease of the wall, and then you're gonna drag it forward and make it all into a little pile. All right? So we'll grab all of this, and we'll put it together in the same pile.
You know what? Let's turn the broom around. OK, move forward a little bit and let's get this corner. And that's a little tricky, isn't it? OK, then drag it and put it on that pile.
OK? OK, try to do that now with that little amount there. Good. Remember, go all the way to the crease of the wall.
Perfect. Right there. Awesome. OK? [INAUDIBLE]. Remember, go all the way to the wall. OK?
There you go. There you go, all the way to the wall. Perfect.
EXAMPLESD: “Give me Blue.”
All right. Addition. Nice job. Addition. Perfect. Really good. Addition. Great job. One more. Addition. Nice. Great job.
Now we're doing silverware too? Addition. Good job. Really good. Couple more. Perfect. Keep going. You're awesome.
Let's discuss prompt fading procedures for errorless learning. While we are attempting to prevent errors using errorless learning, there will be errors from time to time when you begin to fade your prompts.
If this occurs, then you could provide an informational "No" if instructed by your BCBA, then immediately provide the last effective prompt on the next trial in an effort to ensure a correct response. Then, the prompt fading process should be repeated over successive trials.
If an error occurs during the fading process,