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Protein Synthesis: Translation

Protein Synthesis: Translation

Author: Aaron Mullally
Description:

This lesson will explore the three stages of translation that culminate with the production of a polypeptide chain.

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Tutorial

Translation

Source: TRNA image, Creative Commons: http://bit.ly/RTIWHn; Peptide Synthesis image, Creative Commons: http://bit.ly/UyX9Op; Polypeptide Chain, Creative Commons: http://bit.ly/UyXaSq

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Translation

    The process of “reading” a strand of mRNA and translating its message into a protein. This occurs in ribosomes and consists of mRNA and tRNA interacting with one another.

  • Initiation

    The beginning of translation, initiation occurs by the assembly of the ribosomal subunits and when tRNA interacts with the start codon on mRNA.

  • Elongation

    When the appropriate anticodon of tRNA interacts with its codon counterpart on mRNA during translation. Elongation is the second step of translation and will continue until the stop codon is reached.

  • Termination

    When the stop codon is reached during translation, translation ends and the polypeptide chain is released.

  • Polypeptide Chain

    The primary structure of a protein, a polypeptide chain is a linear chain of amino acids that are covalently bound by peptide bonds.