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Homework 4

Sampling and Probability

When submitting this file, be sure the filename includes your full name, course and section. Example: HW4_JohnDoe_354B01

Be sure you have reviewed this module/week’s lesson and presentations along with the practice data analysis before proceeding to the homework exercises. Complete all analyses in SPSS, then copy and paste your output and graphs into your homework document file. Answer any written questions (such as the text-based questions or the APA Participants section) in the appropriate place within the same file.

Part I: Concepts

Questions 1–15

These questions are based on the Nolan and Heinzen reading and end-of-chapter questions.

Questions 1-10

Fill in the highlighted blanks to answer/complete the statements.

1)

When a sample has similar characteristics to the population from which it was drawn, the sample is said to be ________.

2)

If a finding based on a sample also applies beyond that sample to the entire population, that finding is said to have high external _______.

3)

The duplication of the results of a research study in a different context or with a different sample is called ________.

4)

Your own estimate of the likelihood that you will lose 20 pounds is known as a(n) ________.

5)

Expected relative-frequency probability is computed as the number of ________ divided by the number of ________.

6)

The ________ group is the group receiving the intervention or treatment of interest.

7)

A statement that 2 populations are different from one another is a(n) ________ hypothesis.

8)

If you find that the groups you studied differed from each other more than would be expected by chance alone, you ________ the null hypothesis.

9)

When you reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is in fact true, you have made a(n)________ error.

10)

When you fail to reject the null hypothesis but the null hypothesis is false, you have made a(n)________ error.

Question 11a-11b

Researchers were interested in whether toddlers with older siblings learn to read more quickly than those without older siblings. They recruited a sample of families and compared the number of words read correctly by the toddlers with older siblings to the number of words read correctly by toddlers without older siblings.

11-a) What is the likely null hypothesis for this experiment?

Answer

11-b) What is the likely research hypothesis for this experiment?

Answer

Question 12-15

Complete the following exercises:

12) What is the probability of hitting a target if, in the long run, 80 out of every 361 attempts actually hit the target?

Answer (show work)

13) On a TV game show, 5 people have won the grand prize and a total of 104 people have competed. Estimate the probability of winning the grand prize.

Answer (show work)

14) Convert the following proportions to percentages:

a) 0.239

b) .7

c) .5961

a)

Answer

b)

Answer

c)

Answer

15) Convert the following percentages to proportions:

a) 47.3%

b) .1%

c) 9.6%

a)

Answer

b)

Answer

c)

Answer

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