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Reading and Its Instruciton

Reading and Its Instruciton

Author: Tammy Long
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Reading and Learning to Read

The Reading Process

* all actions are based on our personal understanding of the reading process
*understanding will allow for anticipation of decisions regarding literacy instruction
*solid grounding provides for a buffer against falling for reading fads


The Cognitive-Constructivist View of Reading

*a view of reading that emphasizes the active process through which a reader tries to find meaning in what they are reading
*involves connections between ideas and relates to prior knowledge
*Constructivism- emphasizes the idea that comprehending a text is very much an active process; the meaning someone places to a text is subjective depending on their prior experiences

Word Recognition and Fluency

Achieving automatic word recognition is vitally important because automaticity is a prerequisite for fluency, which is the ability to “read a text orally with speed, accuracy, expression and comprehension”


*consists of 3 parts construction, integration, and metacognition

*construction-integration process of reading is where a reader applies prior knowledge to understand each sentence individually, then links the sentences together to find the more broad meaning


the process of regulating the whole meaning of what is being processed, and whether it makes sense


used when a reader approaches a word with an unknown meaning that can include making inferences, asking questions, summarizing, searching for important ideas, or sounding out words

Metacognition and strategies are a matter of both skill and will to self-regulate


*deals with the representation of knowledge in our minds, how we use that knowledge, and how it expands
*schemata help in initial interpretation, relating it to prior knowledge, determining the relative importance and remembering


*Reading includes several subprocesses that need to occur simultaneously; recognition of words, assigning their meaning, construction the meaning of sentences, relating to previous information from the text

*these processes can only occur when some are automated, namely recognition and definition

Reader-Response Theory

says the meaning gained from a text is because of a transaction between the reader and text, and readers will have a range of responses to a range of literature

Aesthetic reading is not done for information, but to experience the text.

Sociocultural Theory

extends the cognitive-constructivist view out to the social realm, in which the previous knowledge, the way it is interpreted, and the way it is received are all influenced by social factors

A Literacy Curriculum for Today's and Tomorrow's World

There are 5 components of reading considered to be the key to effective reading instruction, those being phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

Phonemic Awareness and Other Aspects of Emergent Literacy

*the insight that spoken words are composed of somewhat seperable sounds
*other aspects of emergent literacy include recognition of relationship between written language and oral language, and development of positive attitudes about reading and reading ability

Phonics and Other Word Recognition Skills

*area of reading instruction that deals with the relationships between letters and sounds; used to sound out written words; helps become independent readers
*other word recognition skills include identifying syllables, blending sounds to form syllables and words, dealing with word parts

Fluency and Matching Students with Appropriate Texts

ability to read a text orally with speed, accuracy, expression, and comprehension; requires a lot of reading in ability appropriate texts

Vocabulary Learning and Instruction

*students acquire vocabulary of 5,000 words by the end of 1st grade, and around 50,000 word by graduation
*fostering vocab requires varied language experiences, teaching individual words, teaching word-learning strategies, and fostering word consciousness

Scaffolding Student’s Comprehension of Text and Higher-Order Thinking

students should learn from each and every text they read, scaffold their efforts with narrative texts and expository texts; want students to move beyond comprehension to higher-order thinking

Teaching Comprehension Strategies

conscious and flexible plans that readers apply and adapt to a variety of texts and tasks, such as; purpose of reading, making inferences, what’s important, summarizing, graphic information, imaging &creating graphic representations, and monitoring comprehension

Encouraging Independent Reading and Reader Response

students must become independent readers who chose to read for pleasure, knowledge and satisfaction 

Building Connections and Fostering Higher-Order Thinking

Students need to know what experiences they bring to school are relevant to what they are learning, to realize that subjects are interrelated, realize that concepts learned in school are relevant to outside lives

Source: Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: Motivating All Learners

Reading Instruction

 Instruction is the procedures and practices teachers use to help students acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes  by way of:

* explanation of concepts
* showing students how to use given concepts
* providing assistance to students while they attempt to use new concepts
* providing students with multiple opportunities to practice using the new concepts
*trying to make content as interesting as possible, because motivated students are more engaged in their learning

Research of Instructional Principles:

Clinical Research- method of research where two instructional methods are studied against each other in an experiment to see which one works the best in a classroom setting.
Observational Research- method of research where researchers study what good teachers do by way of observation. The research is observed and practices are recorded and after word compared with processes of non-successful teachers to be related back to growth in reading.

Practices of Highly Effective Teachers and Schools:

* Keep students stimulated in a literary sense with lots of books and other types of print around the classroom.
* Keep multiple activities going on at once in order to keep students working.
* Combine multiple subject areas in order to combine learning and put it to use practically.
* Use a Combination of Phonics and Whole Word instruction.
* Address students not only as a whole class but also in small groups and individually.

6 Traditional Principles of Instruction

1. Focusing on Academically Relevant Tasks- It is extremely important for students to practice and be given multiple "opportunities to learn".
2. Employing Active Teaching- Teacher should serve as an instructional leader that functions as a guide for students as they develop new knowledge.
3. Fostering Active Learning- Teacher should make students use what they have learned practically in order to cement new knowledge.
4. Distinguishing Between Instruction and Practice- Instruction is the process of teaching students something new. Practice is the process of having students do something for you that they already know. As a teacher it must always be clear which you are doing.
5. Providing Sufficient and Timely Feedback- A student must receive timely feedback in order to know if they are grasping information.
6. Teaching for Transfer- Make the information applicable to other parts of the students life, both educationally and otherwise. It is hard to motivate students to learn things that they will never learn.

Characteristics of Schools that Produce High Achievement in High Poverty Settings-

*Strong focus on learning
*Strong school instructional leadership
*Strong collaboration among teachers
*Consistent use of data on student performance to guide instruction
*Emphasis on a professional development for teachers in school
*Strong link to parents

Proactive Vs Reactive Teaching-

Proactive Teaching- Proactive teaching is a style of teaching that revolves around showing students how to do something before expecting them to do it themselves.
Reactive Teaching- Reactive teaching is a style of teaching that revolves around asking students to perform a task and then only helping them with said task when they struggle.

Constructivist and Sociocultural Perspective on Student Instruction-
The Gradual Release of Responsibility- Teacher gradually lets student take control of their own learning through guided instruction until student can apply knowledge learned on their own.
Direct Explanation- Teacher explains content to student in a direct and one sided way. This also the first stage of the Gradual Release of Responsibility.
Cognitive Modeling- Student is allowed to interact with teacher during explanation and takes over the lesson in areas that they know how to. This is the second stage of the Gradual Release of Responsibility
Scaffolding- The teacher helps lead the student toward desired conclusions about a concept by drawing attention to certain areas of the material.
Contextualizing, Reviewing, and Practicing what is Learned- In this the student must be able to think about what they have learned and use it in a practical setting.
Cooperative Learning- Teacher places students into partners or small groups with the goal of the students working together to achieve a common goal or retain a certain concept.
The Zone of Proximal Development- In this the student has three areas of knowledge. What they can obtain on their, what they cannot attain on their own, and the Zone of Proximal Development which refers to the area in between those two that students could grasp with the aid of the teacher.
Teaching for Understanding- When we teach we should aim for content the student is actually capable of grasping and would be able to put to use in their lives. There should not be too many topics covered and information should not be so in depth that it is overwhelming.

Source: Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: Motivating All Learners

Multisensory Reading Instruction Overview

Uploaded on Sep 13, 2010
Dr. Joe Falbo provides a description of multi-sensory teaching strategies effective for dyslexia, autism, asbergers, PDD and other struggling readers.

Source: drjoefalbo

Motivation and Engagement

Making motivation should be a top priority. But motivation all starts with the students attitude, in order for a student to get motivated a student must first, "have a positive attitude about themselves as a learners, about their ability to succeed in school, and about the instructional goals they, their teachers, and schools set." 

Source: Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: Motivating All Learners

Classroom Assessment

Source: Teaching Reading in the 21st Century: Motivating All Learners