In this lesson, you will reflect on competency-based education by using the Pappas model of reflective questions. Further, you will consider how CBE can be enhanced through the use of technology, by reflecting on the ISTE standards for teachers.
In this tutorial, we'll reflect on the integration of technology into competency-based education by using Peter Pappas's reflection model. This model is related to Bloom's Taxonomy. It's arranged in levels that range from low complexity to high complexity.
So let's begin with an overview of Pappas's reflection model. And then I'll walk you through the reflection process, focusing on CBE being enhanced through the use of technology. Here is an overview of Peter Pappas's taxonomy of reflection. Remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create.
Let's begin with level one of the taxonomy, remember. Here are some questions to consider. What specifically did I do? What was the lesson about? Did I cover everything that I needed to? Was I able to complete the unit or lesson in the allotted time?
These are all very basic questions. Many of them have just simple yes or no answers. So they're the simplest form of reflection, but it's a great place to start.
The next level of the taxonomy of reflection is understand. What were the important elements of this lesson? What were the big ideas that I was trying to convey to students? Did I reach the goals that I had set for that individual lesson? These questions help us to start to dig a little more deeply into the lesson and identify what we achieved during the lesson.
The next level of the taxonomy is apply. Here's where you would ask yourself, did I already have experience using that particular instructional strategy, or teaching that content? Would I use that instructional strategy again?
In what other types of contexts might I apply that strategy? Did this lesson do a good job of linking previous learning to future learning? In this level of the taxonomy, we're really getting at the heart of applying our instructional techniques in the classroom.
The next level is analyze. Did my teaching of this lesson help me to recognize any patterns in my instruction? For example, did I gravitate toward one level of questioning techniques more often than any others? Did I bring any assumptions into the lesson about students' background knowledge?
Were there any patterns in the way I paced the lesson or the way I tended to group the students? Here you're taking a really hard look at your instruction. Identifying these patterns can either help us to identify things that are working really well or potentially identify things that maybe we would want to change.
The next level of the taxonomy is evaluate. How do I feel the lesson went? This is where you'll identify both what you did well and what you need to improve on.
Here you can also reflect on the levels of mastery that the various students were able to reach through the implementation of the lesson. In the most advanced level of this taxonomy of reflection is create. What are my next steps going to be? How can I use what I learned from this reflection of today's lesson in order to improve my future lessons?
So now that we've seen how to use Pappas's taxonomy of reflection, let's really zero in on how technology might come into play here. We want to use technology to enhance the learning in our competency-based approaches to instruction. The ISTE Standards for Teachers can really help us here. Recall that these standards indicate that teachers should facilitate and inspire student learning and creativity, design and deliver digital-age learning experiences and assessments, model digital-age work and learning, and promote and model digital citizenship and responsibility.
So looking back at Pappas's taxonomy of reflection, we might consider how exactly did I incorporate technology into the lesson? Did the technology help my students to meet the goals I'd set for them? Would I use the same strategy again? Or next time will I modify my use of technology in order to support CBE?
Did I do a good job of promoting and modeling digital citizenship and responsibility as I implemented technology into this lesson? Can I identify any patterns, good or bad, in the learning experiences and assessments that I'm designing for my students? Can I identify any professional growth and leadership opportunities that might help me to do an even better job of incorporating technology into my CBE-based classroom?
Using this framework can help you to meaningfully reflect on your use of technology in your CBE classroom. This is a great opportunity for you to stop and reflect. Look back at Pappas's taxonomy for reflection and consider your use of technology and CBE principles in the classroom.
As you reflect on how this new information can be applied, you may want to explore the additional resources section that accompanies this video presentation. This is where you'll find links to resources chosen to help you deepen your learning and explore ways to apply your newly acquired skill set. Thanks for watching. Have a great day.
(00:00 - 00:28) Introduction
(00:29 - 00:46) Pappas's Taxonomy of Reflection
(00:47 - 01:14) Taxonomy of Reflection: Remember
(01:15 - 01:37) Taxonomy of Reflection: Understand
(01:38 - 02:08) Taxonomy of Reflection: Apply
(02:09 - 02:45) Taxonomy of Reflection: Analyze
(02:46 - 03:04) Taxonomy of Reflection: Evaluate
(03:05 - 03:19) Taxonomy of Reflection: Create
(03:20 - 04:47) Reflect on Use of Technology
(04:48 - 05:18) Stop and Reflect
The Reflective Teacher: A Taxonomy of Reflection (Part 3)
This blog post explains how teacher reflection connects to Bloom's Taxonomy, and is a useful guide in the reflection process.
Know the ISTE Standards for Teachers 1
This is the first in a series of articles that walks teachers through using the ISTE standards to develop, implement, and reflect on instruction. The article breaks apart the standards and explains what they look like in the classroom.