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Respiration and the Respiratory Cycle

Respiration and the Respiratory Cycle

Author: Amanda Soderlind
Description:

Identify the basics of respiration and the respiratory cycle.

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Tutorial

Respiration

Source: Video and Images Created by Amanda Soderlind

Video Transcription

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Welcome to this lesson today on respiration, gas exchange, and transport. Today we'll be discussing the process of respiration and how gas is exchanged and transported throughout the body. So respiration is basically just the process in which oxygen is delivered to cells, and carbon dioxide waste is removed from the body. And the respiratory system and its components all play vital roles in this process of respiration. So cells require oxygen in order to be able to function. So our circulatory system and respiratory system work together in order to deliver this oxygen to the cells and remove the carbon dioxide from the body.

So in this process of respiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide are going to diffuse down a pressure gradient from high to low. So the steeper this pressure gradient is, the faster this diffusion is going to happen. So let's use oxygen as an example. If we have a lower concentration of oxygen outside versus inside, it's going to diffuse down that gradient and so it will go from the atmosphere. And it will be pulled into the lungs following that gradient. So the steeper that gradient is, the faster the diffusion's going to happen.

So hemoglobin actually plays an important role in maintaining this pressure gradient. So as hemoglobin collects oxygen from the lungs and carries it to the body, it maintains this pressure gradient, so then more oxygen can be pulled into the lungs. And we'll talk a little bit more about hemoglobin in just a few moments here. OK, so the next structure that we're going to talk about is the alveoli. And these are located in the lungs. And they're a necessary part of gas exchange.

So membranes of the alveoli and capillaries form this respiratory membrane. And this respiratory membrane allows for diffusion of gases in this process of respiration. So you can see I have a picture here of a lung. So we have the trachea that branches into the bronchi, which branch into bronchioli-- bronchioles, which then branch into alveoli. So right here is the alveoli. OK. So that is the site of gas exchange within the lungs. That's where gases are exchanged, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, from the blood with the alveoli.

So if we take a look here, we're going to talk about this respiratory membrane. So gas is exchanged between the lungs and between capillaries. So the blood either needs to collect oxygen to carry to the rest of body. Or it needs to get rid of carbon dioxide. So it's going to have this gas exchange with the alveoli in the lungs. So basically, this respiratory membrane is composed on one side, we have our red blood cells within the blood of the capillaries. And then on the other side, this would be the alveoli. OK.

So then here we would have the endothelium of the alveoli. And here we would have the endothelium of the capillary. And then right in between both of them is the basement membrane. So we have our basement membrane of the alveoli and the capillaries are fused right here. So this produces our respiratory membrane. So this is the membrane through which gases are going to diffuse in respiration. So if we have oxygen in the lungs, it's going to diffuse through this respiratory membrane to the red blood cells which contain hemoglobin. And then the hemoglobin will then carry the oxygen away.

And then the reverse would happen with carbon dioxide. If these red blood cells are carrying carbon dioxide, that would diffuse across this respiratory membrane to the alveoli. And then the carbon dioxide would be exhaled when we breathe out. So this respiratory membrane is where gases diffuse between the red blood cells and the alveoli.

So let's take a look at another diagram here. We're going to just talk briefly about hemoglobin. So as I mentioned, hemoglobin maintains that steep pressure gradient of oxygen. So hemoglobin is a protein found in our red blood cells that can bind up to four oxygen at a time. So because it can bind up to four oxygen at a time, that's why it can maintain the steep pressure gradient. So it allows blood to carry more oxygen than it otherwise would. So whenever hemoglobin is carrying oxygen, we call it oxyhemoglobin. And then as we mentioned, hemoglobin can also carry away carbon dioxide.

So let's take a look at this diagram briefly right here, just so you can see as you're breathing in and out, what hemoglobin is doing with the carbon dioxide and oxygen and how this is being dispersed. So let's say you breathe in oxygen. So then that oxygen that you breathe in is going to be delivered to the left side of your heart. It's going to be pumped through the left side of your heart, and then is going to be transported throughout the cells of your body. And then your body cells are going to use that oxygen. And now these red blood cells don't have as much oxygen anymore. They're oxygen-lacking. They're depleted of oxygen, because that oxygen has been used.

So then the next thing that's going to happen is the blood is going to carry this ox-- or this-- it's going to carry the blood that doesn't have oxygen in it, but instead has carbon dioxide back up to the right side of your heart. And then your right side of your heart is going to pump it back up to your lungs, where it will then collect more oxygen and go through this process again. So as soon as you breathe in, the oxygen you breathe in is going to be collected by hemoglobin in your blood. And so that blood is going to be rich in oxygen and low in carbon dioxide.

But then as soon as your cells use that oxygen up, your blood is now going to be low in oxygen but high in carbon dioxide. So it then needs to be pumped back to the lungs to get rid of that carbon dioxide and collect more oxygen. So hemoglobin, by binding to so many oxygens at a time, helps maintain that pressure gradient so that you can carry more oxygen to your cells.

So this lesson has been an overview on respiration, gas exchange, and transport.

Respiratory Cycle

Source: Video and Images Created by Amanda Soderlind

Video Transcription

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Today, we are going to be taking a look at the processes that occur during the respiratory cycle. So first of all, we are going to define what the respiratory cycle is. So it is the process of breathing in and out. So when you breathe in, we call that inhalation, when you inhale air. And during this part of the respiratory cycle, what is happening is that your lungs are expanding.

And the other part of the respiratory cycle then is exhalation, or breathing out. And during this part of the respiratory cycle, your lungs will deflate. So we are going to take a look at the processes that occur during these two parts of the respiratory cycle. So let's take a look at the diagrams that we have over here.

We're going to be taking a look at what is happening within your body when you inhale and when you exhale. So let's start by talking about exhaling first, the process of exhalation, which is when you expel air. So during this process, there are several things that are going on that aid in exhalation.

So one of the things that's happening is your diaphragm here, which is a muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity, is going to relax. And when that happens, it causes the diaphragm to move upwards slightly. And also at the same time, your rib muscles, your intercostal rib muscles , are going to be in a resting position.

So what this does between your diaphragm relaxing and your rib muscles being in a resting position is that it causes pressure in your chest cavity to increase. So as this is moving up and your rib muscles are at a resting position, it causes an increase in pressure in your chest cavity. So what's going to happen is that you have high pressure in your chest cavity relative to atmosphere. So the pressure in your chest cavity is higher than atmospheric pressure.

So this pressure gradient is going to cause air to be pushed out of the lungs as you exhale, and then your lungs will deflate. So that's what's happening during exhalation. OK. So during inhalation, kind of the opposite thing is happening. Inhalation occurs when you take air into your lungs.

So during this process, the diaphragm is going to contract. And when it contracts, it moves downward slightly. At the same time, your intercostal rib muscles, which are the muscles in between your ribs, are going to lift your rib cage up and out.

So between your diaphragm moving down and your rib cage moving up and out, there is a decrease in pressure in your chest cavity because there is now more room in your chest cavity, OK? So your diaphragm moving down and your rib moving up and out is producing more room in your chest cavity. And therefore, a decrease in pressure.

So pressure inside your chest cavity relative to pressure in the atmosphere, there's less pressure in your chest cavity relative to pressure in the atmosphere. So because of this pressure gradient, you have higher pressure up here than in here. Air that is going to flow to where there's less pressure. so it's going to flow inward towards your lungs and cause your lungs to inflate.

So you can see here, our lungs are inflated full of air. Here, they're deflated as they're pushing the air out. So lungs are caused to inflate as air moves in towards your lungs due to that difference in the pressure gradient. So a couple of terms we're going to take a look at right here are tidal volume and vital capacity.

So tidal volume is the amount of air that enters your lungs in a normal breath. Now, that's an average of about two cups per person, or about 500 milliliters, OK? And then vital capacity is the maximum amount of air you exhale after the deepest breath possible.

So the tidal volume and vital capacity are going to vary a little bit from person to person depending on the person's size and depending on how in shape they are, how athletic they are. So people who are more athletic can hold more air in their lungs. So this lesson has been an overview on the respiratory cycle.

Video Transcription

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Terms to Know
Alveoli

Microscopic air sacs located in the peripheral parts of the lungs that consist of simple squamous epithelial tissue. Alveoli and pulmonary capillaries create the respiratory membrane where gas exchange occurs between atmospheric air and blood.

Carbaminohemoglobin

A term used to describe when carbon dioxide is bound to hemoglobin; something to note is that oxygen and carbon dioxide do not compete with each other when binding to hemoglobin.

Exhalation

The events that occur to drive air flow out of the lungs; when the diaphragm relaxes and the thoracic cage collapses putting a positive pressure on the lungs driving air out.

Hemoglobin

A quaternary pigment protein found on red blood cells, hemoglobin is primarily used to transport oxygen and some carbon dioxide throughout the blood.

Inhalation

The events that occur to drive air flow into the lungs; when the diaphragm contracts to expand the thoracic cage and decrease the pressure inside of the chest.

Oxyhemoglobin

The term used to describe when oxygen is bound to hemoglobin; oxygen + hemoglobin = oxyhemoglobin.

Pressure gradient

Differences in pressures created by different concentrations of air in different areas.

Respiration

A term used to describe the movement of gasses across a semi-permeable membrane; in this case it would be the gas exchange process that occurs at the respiratory membrane (alveoli and pulmonary capillaries).

Respiratory Cycle

The events that occur during one breath; inhalation + exhalation = 1 respiratory cycle.

Respiratory Membrane

The respiratory membrane consists of alveolar air sacs and pulmonary capillaries, and is where the actual site of gas exchange occurs between atmospheric air and the blood.

Tidal Volume

The volume of air we breathe in per breath; the average tidal volume is 500 mL/breath.

Vital Capacity

The maximum amount of air you move during one breathing cycle.