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Self & Self Actualization

Self & Self Actualization

Description:

This lesson will define, discuss and examine Rogers' Self Theory and its components.

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Tutorial


What's Covered

This lesson is going to look at the ideas of self and how that can lead to our personality by covering:

  1. Roger's Theory of Self
  2. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1. Roger's Theory of Self

Humanism is a theory of psychology that emphasizes a person’s perspectives about growth and potential within themselves. The important figures to remember for this theory are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.

One key aspect of this theory is the idea of self and how it can lead to our personality. Both of these psychologists wanted to identify what were the best possible conditions for human growth, and that led to the development of theories of self and self-actualization.

Term to Know

  • Self-Actualization
  • Congruence of ideal self, real self, and self-concept.

Roger's theory of self said that a person’s self, or personality, is composed of three different parts:

  • Self-concept or self-image- is a person's image or idea of himself or herself. This includes self-esteem and a person’s estimation of their worth. Other people's opinions of can have a huge influence on what a person thinks of themselves. This influence can create conditions of worth

    ExampleIf a parent says that their child is a bad or naughty person, then that person is more likely to think that they're a bad or naughty person, and their behavior will reflect that.

  • Ideal self- this is an image that a person has on what they would like to be. It might not necessarily be possible to be your ideal self. This ideal self can be shaped by a person's values, culture, and upbringing.
  • Real self or true self- this is what a person is actually like. It includes things like a person's abilities, their physical appearance, and anything that actually makes themselves up.

Terms to Know

  • Roger's Self Theory
  • Emphasizes current, subjective understanding; self-concept, real self, ideal self.
  • Conditions of Worth
  • Internalizes standards of judgments that evaluate our behavior, emotions, and thoughts.
  • Self-Concept/Self-Image
  • Our total perception of ourselves; mental picture based on our perception (positive and negative) of our traits, behaviors, abilities.
  • Ideal Self
  • Who we would like to be.
  • Real Self
  • True representation of the person we are.

According to Rogers, the way that these three aspects of self interact leads to our personality. Incongruence is when these aspects of personality are not together. It is when there are differences between our self-concept, our ideal self, and/or our true self. An individual is not aligned as a person.

ExampleA person might have unrealistic expectations about what they're actually able to achieve. Their self-concept and ideal self are apart from each other.

This leads to stress and anxiety. The ideal situation is congruence. Congruence is when a person is honest and has come to terms with what their abilities and potentials are. All aspects do not have to match exactly, but should be very closely aligned.

Terms to Know

  • Congruence
  • Parts of self are in alignment and balanced.
  • Incongruent
  • Inaccurate self-image; self-image differs from the ideal self. 

Rogers referred to as a fully-functioning persona. This is a person that has found a balance between their thoughts and feelings, and they have a balanced personality. A fully-functioning persona is a person that's congruent.

Term to Know

  • Fully Functioning Persona
  • Person who strives to live in harmony with their present impulses and feelings.


2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow expanded on Rogers' ideas of self, and said that there were certain needs that a person had which were not necessarily just internal. Having both the internal and external needs met, allows a person to become fully functioning. This is what Maslow called his hierarchy of needs. It's what you would consider to be the soil, or what's necessary for a person to grow.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs are external and internal conditions necessary for a person to become fully functioning; lower needs must be met prior to higher needs, but higher needs must be met for a fulfilling life.

At the bottom are basic kinds of needs. These are physiological needs, which are food, water, shelter, as well as a sense of safety. Above that are social and emotional needs that a person might have like the need for love and belonging. Moving further up is the need for esteem and cognitive needs. At the top is self-actualization.

Maslow's idea is that a person needs to fulfill the lower needs first. A person needs to be able to feel safe andLoading... have the things needed to survive before they can go on to the stages at the top. According to Maslow those higher needs must be reached to have a fulfilled life


Summary

Roger’s theory of self stated that the personality is made of three parts: self-concept, ideal self, and real self. When these are aligned it creates congruence, which is the ideal state. When congruence is achieved, it will lead to a fully-functioning persona. Maslow expanded on this by saying that a person has certain needs that must be met first. Maslow's hierarchy of needs shows lower needs are physical ones like food, shelter, and safety. The highest level is self-actualization which is achieved when fully-functioning persona.

Source: This work is adapted from Sophia Author Erick Taggart

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Roger's Self Theory

    Emphasizes current, subjective understanding; self-concept, real self, ideal self.

  • Real Self

    True representation of the person we are.

  • Conditions of Worth

    Internalizes standards of judgments that evaluate our behavior, emotions, and thoughts.

  • Self-Concept/Self-Image

    Our total perception of ourselves; mental picture based on our perception (positive and negative) of our traits, behaviors, abilities.

  • Ideal Self

    Who we would like to be.

  • Fully Functioning Persona

    Person who strives to live in harmony with their present impulses and feelings.

  • Self-Actualization

    Congruence of ideal self, real self, and self-concept.

  • Congruence

    Parts of self are in alignment and balanced.

  • Incongruent

    Inaccurate self-image; self-image differs from the ideal self.

  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

    External and internal conditions necessary for a person to become fully functioning; lower needs must be met prior to higher needs, but higher needs must be met for a fulfilling life.