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Skeletal Disorders

Skeletal Disorders

Description:

This lesson will give an overview of various disorders of the skeleton.

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Tutorial

Disorders of the Skeletal System

Source: Video and Images Created by Amanda Soderlind

Video Transcription

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Welcome to this lesson on skeletal system disorders.

Today we will be briefly discussing various disorders that affect the skeletal system that could be caused from anything from aging, overuse, lifestyle, or various other causes.

The first disorder we're going to take a look at today is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, the description of this disorder is a loss of bone mass, or deterioration of bone over time. The main cause for osteoporosis is actually aging. Deficiencies in calcium are another big cause of this disorder. So if you have a diet that is lacking in calcium, bones aren't able to stay as strong and resilient as they otherwise would, so that bone will start to lose mass over time. Something else that contributes to osteoporosis is a sedentary lifestyle. So not exercising, not getting enough exercise to build the bone mass is something that can cause that mass to be lost more quickly, as well. So aging, deficiencies in calcium, and sedentary lifestyles are the three main causes for osteoporosis. And osteoporosis is actually a disorder that is most common in women who are past menopause. So they're the ones that are affected most by this disorder

Our next disorder is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a disorder where the cartilage between the joints starts to wear away. This is caused by stress on the joints, disease, sports injury, obesity and age. So all of these things add stress to the joints, which can cause that cartilage to slowly wear way, which can be very painful, as well. Because then you have the ends of the bones kind of rubbing against each other, and they don't have that cartilage cushion in between them like they normally would.

Our next disorder is carpal tunnel syndrome. This disorder occurs when the tendons of the wrist swell, and press on nerves, causing pain. This disorder is actually really common in people who work on computers a lot, or an office buildings, because it's the repetitive motion, such as typing, that causes stress on the tendons of the wrist. And then as those tendons get stressed, they'll swell and press on the nerves, and they can cause a lot of pain in the wrist.

Our next disorder is sprains, strains, and dislocations. These are all disorders that are caused by injury of the joints. A sprain is a tear in a ligament or tendon. A strain is when a ligament or tendon has been stretched or twisted too far, and a dislocation is when two bones at a joint that were in contact, are no longer in contact anymore. Such as if you were to dislocate your shoulder, for example, those two bones that make up that joint are no longer in contact. Common causes of these types of disorders are sports injuries, overuse, or mechanical stress. So it's causing injury to the joint, which can cause sprains, strains, or dislocations.

Breaks are another common disorder of the skeletal system. This basically, a break is when a bone is broken. This can vary a little bit. There's a spectrum of breaks, and so it's classified by the degree of the break. It can either be a simple, complete or compound fracture. So these are caused by a sports injuries, overuse, and mechanical stress, as well.

We're going to take a look here at the different types breaks. Our classification of breaks. So as I mentioned, we have three classifications of breaks. We have simple fractures, complete fractures, and compound fractures. Our first example here is of a simple fracture. A simple fracture is basically just-- you can see here-- a small fracture in a bone. It doesn't completely go through the entire bone, and there's not going to be any surrounding tissue damage. So it's just a very simple fracture. Hence its name.

Our next type of break it is a complete fracture. So complete fracture. In a complete fracture, the bone actually-- you'll notice-- breaks into two pieces. So we have one piece here and one piece here. So we had our break go through, and it broke it into two pieces. With this type of break, or with this type of fracture, there will be some soft tissue damage associated with it. So you'll see it's a little bit more complex than our simple fracture.

And our last type of break is a compound fracture. With this type of break, this is actually the worst type. So you'll notice that the bone, rather than cleanly breaking, as in a complete break, bone fragments have actually shattered. You can see that right here. So generally what happens with this type of-- with this type of fracture is that the broken ends of the bone will puncture the skin, so you have an open wound, in addition to other soft tissue damage. So it's a much more serious type of break, that causes much more damage to the person.

So these are the three types of breaks. Simple being the least complex, and compound fracture being the most complex and the most serious.

This lesson has been an overview on various disorders of the skeletal system. Keep in mind, however, that these are not the only disorders of the bones. Other disorders, such as cancer, can also have an effect on the skeletal system.

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Compound Fracture

    A break in which the bone shatters causing a significant amount of soft tissue damage.

  • ​Complete Fracture

    ​A break in which the bone separates into two and tissue damage occurs.

  • Simple Fracture

    ​A break in which the bone is still in one piece and minimal or no tissue damage occurs.

  • Dislocation

    ​A disorder in which two bones of a joint are no longer in contact with each other.

  • ​Strain

    ​An overuse injury that stretches a tendon past its normal point.

  • Sprain

    ​A torn ligament or tendon caused by overuse.

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    The inflammation of tendons in the wrist which then press on surrounding nerves caused by repeated motion.

  • Osteoarthritis

    The wearing away of cartilage that occurs between joints which can lead to inflammation and the formation of small protrusions on bones near the joint called bone spurs.

  • Osteoporosis

    ​A disorder in which the bone tissue deteriorates over time.