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Skeletal Disorders

Skeletal Disorders

Author: Sophia Tutorial
Description:

This lesson will give an overview of various disorders of the skeleton.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

This lesson will give an overview of disorders of the skeletal system by looking at:

  1. Common Disorders
  2. Classifications of Breaks

1. Common Disorders

There are various disorders that affect the skeletal system. These disorders have many different causes, such as aging, overuse, lifestyle, et cetera. Here we'll discus several common disorders and their causes.

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a loss of bone mass, or deterioration of bone over time. The main cause of osteoporosis is aging. Deficiencies in calcium can also contribute to this disorder. If you have a diet that is lacking in calcium, bones aren't able to stay as strong and resilient as they otherwise would, losing mass over time. A sedentary lifestyle also contributes to osteoporosis. This disorder is actually most common in women who are past menopause.

Osteoarthritis 

Osteoarthritisis a disorder where the cartilage between the joints starts to wear away. The main causes are stress on the joints, disease, sports injury, obesity, and age. Osteoarthritis can be very painful because it causes the ends of the bones to rub against each other.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 

Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the tendons of the wrist swell and press on nerves, causing pain. Carpal tunnel syndrome is common in people who work on computers because it's a repetitive motion, such as typing, that causes stress on the tendons of the wrist.

Sprains, Strains, and Dislocations 

These are all disorders that are caused by injury of the joints. A sprain is a tear in a ligament or tendon; a strain is when a ligament or tendon has been stretched or twisted too far; and a dislocation is when two bones at a joint are no longer in contact. Common causes of these types of disorders are sports injuries, overuse, and mechanical stress.

Breaks 

Breaks are another common disorder of the skeletal system, and there is a spectrum used to classify the degree of the break. These classifications include a simple, complete, or compound fracture. Breaks are caused by sports injuries, overuse, and mechanical stress.

Terms to Know

    • Osteoporosis
    • A disorder in which the bone tissue deteriorates over time.
    • Osteoarthritis
    • The wearing away of cartilage that occurs between joints which can lead to inflammation and the formation of small protrusions on bones near the joint called bone spurs.
    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • The inflammation of tendons in the wrist which then press on surrounding nerves caused by repeated motion.
    • Sprain
    • A torn ligament or tendon caused by overuse.
    • Strain
    • An overuse injury that stretches a tendon past its normal point.
    • Dislocation
    • A disorder in which two bones of a joint are no longer in contact with each other.

2. Classifications of Breaks

Let's take a look at the different types of breaks.

Simple Fractures

simple fracture is a small fracture in a bone. It doesn't go through the entire bone, and there isn't any surrounding tissue damage.

Complete Fractures

complete fracture occurs when the bone actually breaks into two pieces. There will be some soft tissue damage associated with this type of break.

Compound Fractures

compound fracture is the worst type of break. Rather than cleanly breaking, as in a complete break, bone fragments have actually shattered. In this type of break, broken ends of the bone will generally puncture the skin, and other soft tissue damage will occur.

Terms to Know

    • Simple Fracture
    • A break in which the bone is still in one piece and minimal or no tissue damage occurs.
    • Complete Fracture
    • A break in which the bone separates into two and tissue damage occurs.
    • Compound Fracture
    • A break in which the bone shatters causing a significant amount of soft tissue damage.

Summary

This has been an overview on common disorders of the skeletal system, though it is not a complete list. While aging, diet, lack of exercise, injury, and overuse contribute to the disorders we covered in this lesson, other disorders, such as cancer, can also have an effect on the skeletal system. When we break a bone, there are three classifications of breaks the injury can fall into, with simple fractures being the least complex, and compound fractures being the most complex and serious.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND

Terms to Know
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The inflammation of tendons in the wrist which then press on surrounding nerves caused by repeated motion.

Compound Fracture

A break in which the bone shatters causing a significant amount of soft tissue damage.

Dislocation

​A disorder in which two bones of a joint are no longer in contact with each other.

Osteoarthritis

The wearing away of cartilage that occurs between joints which can lead to inflammation and the formation of small protrusions on bones near the joint called bone spurs.

Osteoporosis

​A disorder in which the bone tissue deteriorates over time.

Simple Fracture

​A break in which the bone is still in one piece and minimal or no tissue damage occurs.

Sprain

​A torn ligament or tendon caused by overuse.

​Complete Fracture

​A break in which the bone separates into two and tissue damage occurs.

​Strain

​An overuse injury that stretches a tendon past its normal point.