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Skeletal Disorders

Skeletal Disorders

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Description:

This lesson will give an overview of various disorders of the skeleton.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

This lesson will give an overview of disorders of the skeletal system by looking at:

  1. Common Disorders
  2. Classifications of Breaks

1. Common Disorders

There are various disorders that affect the skeletal system with many different causes such as aging, overuse, lifestyle, et cetera. Here are several common ones:

  • Osteoporosis is a loss of bone mass, or deterioration of bone over time.
    • Causes: The main cause is aging. Deficiencies in calcium are can also contribute to this disorder. If you have a diet that is lacking in calcium, bones aren't able to stay as strong and resilient as they otherwise would, losing mass over time. A sedentary lifestyle also contributes to osteoporosis is. Osteoporosis is actually a disorder that is most common in women who are past menopause.
  • Osteoarthritis is a disorder where the cartilage between the joints starts to wear away.
    • Causes: stress on the joints, disease, sports injury, obesity and age. This disorder can be very painful because you have the ends of the bones kind of rubbing against each other.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the tendons of the wrist swell and press on nerves, causing pain.
    • Causes: This disorder is common in people who work on computers because it's the repetitive motion, such as typing, that causes stress on the tendons of the wrist.
  • Sprains, strains, and dislocations are all disorders that are caused by injury of the joints. A sprain is a tear in a ligament or tendon, a strain is when a ligament or tendon has been stretched or twisted too far, and a dislocation is when two bones at a joint that were in contact, are no longer in contact anymore.
    • Causes: Common causes of these types of disorders are sports injuries, overuse, or mechanical stress.
  • Breaks are another common disorder of the skeletal system, and there is a spectrum used to classified by the degree of the break. These classifications include a simple, complete or compound fracture.
    • Causes: caused by a sports injuries, overuse, and mechanical stress.

Terms to Know

    • Osteoporosis
    • A disorder in which the bone tissue deteriorates over time.
    • Osteoarthritis
    • The wearing away of cartilage that occurs between joints which can lead to inflammation and the formation of small protrusions on bones near the joint called bone spurs.
    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • The inflammation of tendons in the wrist which then press on surrounding nerves caused by repeated motion.
    • Sprain
    • A torn ligament or tendon caused by overuse.
    • Strain
    • An overuse injury that stretches a tendon past its normal point.
    • Dislocation
    • A disorder in which two bones of a joint are no longer in contact with each other.

2. Classifications of Breaks

Let's take a look at the different types breaks:

  • Simple fractures- a small fracture in a bone. It doesn't completely go through the entire bone, and there's not going to be any surrounding tissue damage
  • Complete fractures-the bone actually breaks into two pieces. There will be some soft tissue damage associated with it.
  • Compound fractures -the worst type of break. Rather than cleanly breaking, as in a complete break, bone fragments have actually shattered. Generally with this type of fracture broken ends of the bone will puncture the skin in addition to other soft tissue damage.

Terms to Know

    • Simple Fracture
    • A break in which the bone is still in one piece and minimal or no tissue damage occurs.
    • Complete Fracture
    • A break in which the bone separates into two and tissue damage occurs.
    • Compound Fracture
    • A break in which the bone shatters causing a significant amount of soft tissue damage.

Summary

This has been an overview on common disorders of the skeletal system. It is not a complete list. While aging, diet, lack of exercise, as well as injury and overuse contribute to the disorders we covered in this lesson, other disorders, such as cancer, can also have an effect on the skeletal system. When we break a bone there are three classifications of breaks the injury can fall into, simple being the least complex, and compound fracture being the most complex and the most serious.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Osteoporosis

    ​A disorder in which the bone tissue deteriorates over time.

  • Osteoarthritis

    The wearing away of cartilage that occurs between joints which can lead to inflammation and the formation of small protrusions on bones near the joint called bone spurs.

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    The inflammation of tendons in the wrist which then press on surrounding nerves caused by repeated motion.

  • Sprain

    ​A torn ligament or tendon caused by overuse.

  • ​Strain

    ​An overuse injury that stretches a tendon past its normal point.

  • Dislocation

    ​A disorder in which two bones of a joint are no longer in contact with each other.

  • Simple Fracture

    ​A break in which the bone is still in one piece and minimal or no tissue damage occurs.

  • ​Complete Fracture

    ​A break in which the bone separates into two and tissue damage occurs.

  • Compound Fracture

    A break in which the bone shatters causing a significant amount of soft tissue damage.