Discrete trial training (DTT) is a teaching method with a clear beginning, middle, and end used to promote learning new skills. It is made up of the three-term contingency:
Eyes on me. Thank you. Good job. What letter?
Good. G. Last one, what letter?
D. Good job, buddy! Look, we got toys. Good job. Give me five. Awesome!
Here is a review of the key terms related to DTT:
|Discriminative Stimulus (SD)||A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced and in the absence of which that response will not be reinforced.|
|Motivating Operation (MO)||A condition or physical state that alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer by making the reinforcer either more (in the case of an establishing operation, or EO) or less (in the case of an abolishing operation, or AO) reinforcing. It can evoke responses that produce that item or activity.|
|Response||The patient’s behavior that occurs after the presentation of the antecedent (SD).|
|Consequence||The outcome that occurs immediately following the patient’s response.|
|Reinforcement||Immediate presentation of a desired stimulus or removal of an aversive stimulus that increases the future frequency of a response. Something that occurs after a behavior that makes that behavior more likely to occur in the future.|
|Positive Reinforcement||Occurs when the patient is given something desirable when the behavior occurs.|
|Negative Reinforcement||Occurs when the patient has something undesirable that is taken away when the targeted behavior occurs.|
Easton, touch D.
Good! Nice job.
Tucker, touch D.
Oh, nope. Try again. Touch D.
Good! There it is. Good job.
Good job. High five, my friends. You did awesome. Easton, high five. Good. Tucker, high five. Nice! Well done. Easton, you got all of your tokens. You worked for the ball! Tucker, what would you like, bud? We have one more gummy bear, or we have Skittles, or Mike and Ikes, or M&Ms. What would you like?
You want a Skittle? Nice job, buddy. I'm going to give you orange.
[LOUD DIGITAL TONE]
Can I turn it down?
I press the volume, and [INAUDIBLE].
Recall that primary (also unlearned or unconditioned) reinforcers are things that reinforce our behavior from birth. Because they do not have to be learned, they are considered unconditioned reinforcers. Secondary (also learned, or conditioned) reinforcers are things that become reinforcers because they have been paired with other reinforcers.
Continuous reinforcement is used when teaching new target responses; the reinforcement occurs following every correct response. Intermittent reinforcement is used to maintain behaviors previously learned, or “mastered”; the reinforcement occurs after every 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. correct responses or after an average number of responses.
Error correction is a procedure following an incorrect or non-response. These are two types of error correction:
Following is a list of key terms associated with discrimination training:
|Discrimination Training||The process of reinforcing a target response only when the target antecedent, or SD, is present. This is used to teach the patient the difference between two or more stimuli.|
|Acquisition Target||Description of the SD-response relationship that is currently being taught|
|Distracters||Additional items that are not targets but are used in discrimination training procedures to teach discrimination|
|Mass Trial||Repeating a specific SD/instruction so patient can practice giving a correct response|
|Random Rotation||The presentation of two or more SDs in random order|
|Mastery||Criteria that objectively determine when a patient has learned a target|
[INAUDIBLE] this. What color is this?
Red. Very good. You know your colors.
Once he has learned to label the red car by saying red, he now needs to learn to discriminate between a red car and other cars. Here, when shown a yellow car, he mistakenly identifies it first by saying red.
What color is this?
This shows that he does not yet fully discriminate between the items, and therefore, has not yet totally mastered the concept of red.
|Seven Steps for “No Known” Targets||Four Steps for “Known” Targets|
Step 1: MT (mass trial) Target 1 Alone
Step 2: MT Target 1 vs. Unknown Distracters
Step 3: MT Target 2 Alone
Step 4: MT Target 2 vs. Unknown Distracters
Step 5: MT Target 1 with Target 2 as a distracter
Step 6: MT Target 2 with Target 1 as a distracter
Step 7: RR (random rotation) Target 1 vs. Target 2
Step 1: MT Target 3 Alone
Step 2: MT Target 3 vs. Unknown Distracters
Step 3: MT Target 3 vs. Known Distracters
Step 4: RR Target 3 vs. Previously Mastered Targets
|Three Steps for “No Known” Targets||Two Steps for “Known” Targets|
Step 1: MT Target 1 Alone
Step 2: MT Target 2 Alone
Step 3: RR Target 1 vs. Target 2
Step 1: MT Target 3 Alone
Step 2: RR Target 3 vs. Previously Mastered Targets
Guidelines for conditional discrimination training include
Natural environment training (NET) is a training procedure in which situations and items that the patient would already be interacting with are used to teach target skills. Behavior technicians capitalize on the patient’s motivation at that given moment.
Here are some key terms related to NET:
|Combining||Presenting two or more different SDs/learning opportunities during an activity|
|Capturing||Using existing SDs/learning opportunities that are already present in the natural environment|
|Contriving||The behavior technician modifies the environment or situation to create a learning opportunity when one is not present|
Hey, what color do you want? Look, I have green, yellow, and pink. What color?
So what do you say?
Can I have yellow?
Yes, you can. Close. There we go.
Uh-oh! Should we make him stand?
[INAUDIBLE] little jumpy.
[GASPS] Should we make him jump? Here, let's make him jump. Ready? Boink. Uh-oh. Look. What is that? See, it's a footprint.
It's a footprint.
It's a footprint. Cool. You want to do it again?
Oh, ho, oh, coolness. Wow!
Happy birthday? Whose birthday is it? Say, it's my--
Say it's M--
It's my [INAUDIBLE]. It's my birthday.
Yeah. How old are you?
Yep, you're three. Do this. Say, three.
1, 2-- look, three fingers. Look. Right here. Look. 1, 2--
--3, three fingers.
There are four main characteristics of NET:
NET prompting strategies consist of these: