Forms of punishment aimed at reform, rather than mere incarceration, and operate outside of jails and prisons.
Repeated criminal offenses. Any offense after an initial offense is an example of criminal recidivism.
A sentence of death reserved for severe crimes.
When an inmate is released early and gets to serve the rest of his or her sentence outside the prison under the loose supervision of a parole officer.
A form of punishment where the convicted offender stays in the community but must undertake a court imposed treatment regime.
A form of punishment where the judge sends the offender to prison for a part of the sentence to "shock" them, and then lets them serve the rest of their sentence in the community with probation conditions.
A way to control deviance in society by locking up offenders in prisons or sentencing them to the death penalty.