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Standards-Based Instruction and Evaluation Theories

Standards-Based Instruction and Evaluation Theories

Author: Trisha Fyfe

In this lesson, you will revisit theories and models that are related to standards-based instruction and evaluation.

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Welcome. I'm Trisha Fyfe. And in today's video lesson, I will be discussing the topic "Standards-Based Instruction and Theories."

As we learn about this topic, we will work towards several learning objectives. Together, we will answer the following questions. What are the theories that are related to standards-based based instruction and why is it important to use these theories in your teaching?

Let's start by talking about Marzano. Marzano's teacher evaluation model is a model that has four different domains. This teacher evaluation model is designed for teachers to refer to as they reflect and grow. The domains include domain one, classroom strategies and behaviors, which has 41 different elements to look at; domain two, planning and preparing, which has eight elements; domain three, reflecting on teaching, which has five elements; and domain four, collegiality and professionalism, which has six different elements to look at as a teacher.

We'll talk about some examples of each of these domains and some of the elements in just a minute. First, let's talk about a resource that will be so beneficial to you in looking at Marzano and these different domains-- Enhancing the Art and Science of Teaching with Technology. And this is by Marzano in 2014. Here, you can find more information on this model and how to use these learning strategies.

Let's look at a few examples of what you might see in each of the domains. Domain one-- classroom strategies and behaviors. Marzano has designed questions that help guide you through the different elements.

One example of a design question is, what will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge? Element 10, 11, and 12 all fall under this design question. You can look at ways that you're helping students process new information, ways that you might be helping students elaborate on new information, and ways that you're helping students record and represent knowledge. Maybe you have students work in collaborative groups and use questioning techniques to elaborate on new information or you have students record their information in writing and use visual tools to represent their knowledge.

Domain two-- planning and preparing. Some simple elements are element one, planning and preparing for effective scaffolding of information within lessons; element two, planning and preparing for lessons within a unit that progress towards a deep understanding and transfer of content; and element three, planning and preparing for appropriate attention to establish content standards. Here you could use a tool like understanding by design. And this framework can help you plan and prepare for lessons within a unit that progress towards that deep understanding and transfer of content, making sure that you're aligned with your content and standards, your assessment, and your learning activities in your classroom.

Domain three-- reflecting on teaching. Some example elements are element one, identifying specific areas of pedagogical strength and weakness within domain one-- and remember, those were the classroom strategies and behaviors-- element two, evaluating the effectiveness of individual lessons and units-- these are all elements that will be geared towards your reflecting on your instruction. In domain four-- collegiality and professionalism-- Marzano gives new elements like number three-- seeking mentorship for areas of need or interest-- and element four-- mentoring other teachers and sharing ideas and strategies. So here, Marzano's helping you to think about your collaboration and communication and how you're representing yourself in your instruction as a teacher.

Marzano also developed nine high-yield instructional strategies. Let me go through all of these nine strategies as well as some examples of these. The first strategy is identifying similarities and differences. And you can have your students use charts and graphs, especially Venn diagrams, to do this. The second strategy is summarizing and note taking. And here, you could model strategies for writing summaries together with your class.

The third strategy is reinforcing effort and providing recognition. And here, an example of this would be celebrating success with your students by having them chart their progress. The fourth strategy is homework and practice. An example of this is considering all of your individual students and their needs and making sure that you're individualizing homework the best you can.

The fifth strategy is nonlinguistic representations. And here, using models is a great tool for this category. You can do things like use virtual manipulative websites. The sixth strategy is cooperative learning. And here, using blogs or wikis or Google docs to have groups collaborate together is an excellent way to do this.

The seventh strategy is setting objectives and providing feedback. And here, you can use questioning techniques as a teacher to help your students set those objectives. The eighth strategy is generating and testing hypotheses. And here, it's important for you to use prompts that require predictions.

And the ninth strategy is questions, cues, and advanced organizers. And here, the use of Bloom's Taxonomy-- especially digital Bloom's-- would be super helpful. For example, in Understand, you would use Google searches. And if you were working in Create, you could have your students make a wiki.

Moving on, let's discuss the work of John Hattie. Hattie's visible learning model confirms the work of Marzano by further showing the impacts of different strategies-- both teacher and student-- on learning. Hattie uses a list of strategies or influences and gives the effect size or the total impact of student learning for that influence.

0.4 is the average so teachers should aim to use strategies that are most effective or higher than this 0.4. It's important to note that most of these high impact strategies are teacher influences so that's something to think about. You really do have a lot of impact as a teacher.

Let's look at the chart here and some examples. You can see that the effect sizes are listed in the right hand column and the influences in the left. And here, I have the chart broken up into on the left, all of those above the 0.4 or the average and on the right, all of those that are under the 0.4 average.

These are just a few of the influences in Hattie's chart. I wanted to give you these as an example. Of those highlighted in red are teacher influences and you can see how many there are. Those highlighted in black are the student influences.

You can see that feedback is the highest on this list here-- the highest effect size-- and that is a teacher influence. So it's extremely important for you as a teacher to give feedback-- consistent feedback and immediate feedback-- to your students. This will help the motivation and those levels of achievement in your classroom. Some other things that are extremely important for you as a teacher are thinking about your class environment and peer tutoring, mastery learning-- these are all things that are above the 0.4 or that average effect size and they are all things that teachers do in the classroom to influence-- so making sure you have a positive and supportive classroom environment, making sure that your students are working together and those that have a good, solid understanding are helping other students so they're working in a collaborative learning environment.

On the right hand side, let's talk about some of the influences that are lower-- things like using audio visual aids and programmed instruction. While these are essential to use in your classroom, they are things that you want to think about after you have already made sure that you have all of these elements in the higher category in place in your classroom. You can see that some of the lower impact influences are things a teacher might typically worry about-- things like testing or instructional media. But these are on the lower end of the scale so try not to worry too much about these.

Let's talk about what we learned today. We looked at the following questions. What are the theories that are related to standards-based instruction and why is it important to use these theories in your teaching? We looked at Marzano's work, both his instructional strategies model and his nine high-yield instructional strategies. And we looked at John Hattie's work on his visible learning model where it clearly shows which influences we as teachers should focus on by giving us the effect sizes or how much they impact our students' learning and levels of achievement.

Now that you have a better understanding of standards-based instruction and some theories, let's reflect. What are the benefits to using these two theories in your standards-based instruction? What might the challenges be to implementing these ideas in a diverse classroom?

Thanks for joining me today in discussing the lesson "Standards-Based Instruction and Theories." I hope you found value in this video lesson and are able to apply these ideas and resources to your own teaching. Now it's your turn to apply what you've learned in this video.

The Additional Resources section will be super helpful. This section is designed to help you discover ways to apply what you've learned here. Each link includes a brief description so you can easily target the resources you want.

Notes on “Standards-Based Instruction and Theories”


(00:00- 00:20) Introduction/Objectives

(00:21- 01:17) Marzano’s Teacher Evaluation Model

(01:18- 03:27) Examples of Elements in Marzano’s Teacher Evaluation Model   

(03:28- 05:12) Marzano’s High Yield-Instructional Strategies

(05:13- 05:51) Hattie’s Visible Learning Model

(05:52- 07:43) Examples of Hattie’s Visible Learning Model

(07:44- 08:14) Recap

(08:15- 08:57) Reflection  

Additional Resources

Content Standards: Connecting Standards-Based Curriculum to Instructional Planning

This website provides lessons with steps for teachers to align their lessons and instruction to standards. This is a great how-to for teachers beginning to link standards-based curriculum and the designing of lessons so that students meet the content standards.

A Vision of Learning: Creating a 21st century education for Oak Lawn-Hometown District 123 students

This plan by Dr. Art Fessler connects standards based instruction with 21st century pedagogies.