An effect that occurs when subjects of a study change their behavior in response to being studied.
A false correlation that is often the result of an unaccounted variable.
A relationship where change in one variable causes the other variable to change.
A close and simultaneous relationship between two or more variables.
Applying statistical data from a group or sample to the larger population as a whole.
A form of statistical analysis that seeks to make statements about the most "typical" member of a group.
The most frequently occurring number in a set.
The middle point in a set of numbers.
The arithmetic average of a set of numbers.