Bohr Model: Introduction
Vocabulary: absorption spectrum, Bohr model, electron volt, energy level, laser, orbital, photon
Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)
When light passes through a gas, certain wavelengths of the light are absorbed. The result is a unique absorption spectrum. Two examples are shown below.
What colors of light are absorbed by hydrogen gas?
What colors of light are absorbed by helium gas?
In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed that the unique spectral lines created by different elements were related to the way electrons were arranged around the nucleus. The Bohr Model: Introduction Gizmo™ explores this connection.
The laser shown in the Gizmo can emit photons, or particles of light, at a variety of wavelengths. The energy of a photon, measured in electron volts (eV), is inversely proportional to its wavelength. Photons that pass through the gas are detected by the photon detector at right.
With the Energy (eV) set to 1 eV, click Fire. Did the photon go straight through the gas in the tube, or was it absorbed by the gas?.
Set the Energy (eV) to 4 eV, and click Fire. What happened this time?
Get the Gizmo ready:
On the SIMULATION pane, select Lamp.
Check that Gas A is selected.
Introduction: The smaller the wavelength of a photon, the greater its energy. We can see photons with wavelengths between 700 nanometers (red) and 400 nanometers (violet), corresponding to energies between 1.8 and 3.1 eV.
Question: What does the absorption spectrum of an element indicate about its electron configuration?
Record: Click Fire. The lamp emits photons of 1 eV, 2 eV, and so on up to 20 eV. The EL Photon Detector Display shows the photons that pass directly through the gas. Any missing photons were absorbed by the gas before being reemitted at various angles.
Which photon energies were absorbed by Gas A?
Observe: Select the Laser on the left and the ORBITALS tab on the right. Set the Energy (eV) to 4 eV. The atom model at right, called the Bohr model, shows the nucleus of the atom as a purple dot. Colored rings surrounding the nucleus represent the orbitalsthat the electron (blue dot) can follow. The variable “n” represents the orbital number.
Click Fire and watch closely. What happens?
Analyze: Click Fire again. This time, focus on the colors of the photons that enter and exit the atom.
What color is the incoming 4-eV photon?
What happens to the electron when the photon is absorbed?
What color is the emitted photon?.
What happens to the electron when the photon is emitted?
If necessary, turn on Show energy of emitted photon(s). What is the energy of the emitted photon?.
(Activity A continued on next page)Activity A (continued from previous page)
Predict: What do you think will happen if you fire a 7-eV photon at the atom of Gas A? How about a 13-eV or a 19-eV photon?
Gather data: Test your predictions with the Gizmo and fill in the table below. (The first row has been filled in for you.)
Analyze: Find the total energy of each set of emitted photons. How does each sum relate to the energy of the absorbed photon?
Explore: With the Energy (eV) set to 19 eV, click Fire six times. Record the energy of the emitted photons each time. Record the results of each trial below.
Analyze: When an electron moves from a higher orbital to a lower one, does it always follow the same path? Explain.