Student Exploration: RNA and Protein Synthesis Vocabulary : amino acid, anticodon, codon, gene, messenger RNA, nucleotide, ribosome, RNA, RNA polymerase, transcription, transfer RNA, translation
Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo .)
1. Suppose you want to design and build a house.
How would you communicate your design plans with the construction crew that would work on the house?
2. Cells build large, complicated molecules, such as proteins. What do you think cells use as their “design plans” for proteins
Gizmo Warm-up Just as a construction crew uses blueprints to build a house, a cell uses DNA as plans for building proteins. In addition to DNA, another nucleic acid, called RNA , is involved in making proteins. In the RNA and Protein Synthesis Gizmo™, you will use both DNA and RNA to construct a protein out of amino acids .
1. DNA is composed of the bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). RNA is composed of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil (U). Look at the SIMULATION pane.
Is the displayed segment a part of a DNA or RNA molecule? How do you know?
2. RNA polymerase is a type of enzyme. Enzymes help chemical reactions occur quickly. Click the Release enzyme button, and describe what happens.
Introduction: The first stage of building a protein involves a process known as transcription . In transcription, a segment of DNA serves as a template to produce a complementary strand of RNA. This complementary strand is called messenger RNA , or mRNA.
Question: What occurs during transcription?
1. Experiment : Like DNA, RNA follows base-pairing rules. Experiment to find which RNA nucleotide on the right side of the Gizmo will successfully pair with the thymine at the top of the template strand of DNA. (NOTE: The DNA on the right side is the template strand.)
Which RNA base bonded with the thymine?
2. Experiment : The next three bases on the DNA template strand are adenine, cytosine, and guanine. Use the Gizmo to answer the following questions:
A. Which RNA base bonds with adenine?
B. Which RNA base bonds with cytosine?
C. Which RNA base bonds with guanine?