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Technology Theories and Models

Technology Theories and Models

Author: Trisha Fyfe

In this lesson, you will consider a nontraditional approach to grading, one that is compatible with standards-based teaching.

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Welcome. I'm Tricia Fyfe. And in today's video lesson, we will be covering the topic "Technology, Theories, and Models."

As we learn about this topic, we will work toward several learning objectives. And together we'll answer the following questions in this lesson. What are the various theories and models related to technology and teaching? And how are These theories similar and different to one another?

Let's start off by discussing the work of Shulman. Lee Shulman, an educational psychologist and professor has impacted the teaching world in so many ways. His idea of PCK, or pedagogical content knowledge, which is the overlapping area between pedagogical knowledge, PK, and content knowledge, CK, is one that can be applied to classrooms of any age.

Shulman writes that "it represents the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular topics, problems, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners."

Shulman also uses six observable behaviors for classroom environments. These six observable behaviors can be used as a guide in creating successful classroom environments and instruction. The six behaviors that we as teachers really need to pay attention to are comprehension for understanding, or understanding fully what you're teaching and why, transformation of ideas, which includes preparing, representing, and adapting, as well as comprehending ideas, instruction, which is the actual teaching, evaluation, or assessment methods and strategies, reflection, and new comprehension, or that new learning that takes place from all of the acts of understanding, teaching, and reflecting.

Let's talk about another influential individual to education, Charlotte Danielson. A former economist, Danielson has become an advocate for effective teacher evaluation models. Her framework for teaching has ties to constructivism.

In this model there are 22 components and 76 elements that are included in four different domains-- planning and preparation, classroom environment, instruction, and professional responsibilities. The goal is to meet in the center in that overlapping section of this model where you have balance in all four of these domains.

Next is TPACK. TPACK built on Shulman's idea of PCK, or pedagogical content knowledge, by adding in the component of using technology effectively in your instruction. The diagram here with TPACK shows the three domains. PK, or pedagogical knowledge, CK, content knowledge, and TK, technological knowledge. And those overlapping areas of PCK, TCK, TPK, and the sweet spot where we should strive to be as teachers, TPCK-- technological pedagogical content knowledge. It's here that we intertwine all three of the domains. And we strive as teachers to connect the technology, pedagogy and content in our classroom.

The SAMR model was developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedura to help teachers access what they are currently using as far as technology in their instruction. The SAMR model resembles a ladder-like structure of four levels from the bottom, substitution, where we simply replace the acts of technology without changing anything. For example, using a word processor instead of using pen and paper. And augmentation, where we begin to enhance the activity with technology. For example, using the same word processor, using spell check and grammar checks to go a little further. These two bottom steps are meant to enhance instruction and lessons.

The next step is modification, where technology begins to change our instruction. We can use things like Google Docs and the chat on Google Forums. The next step is redefinition. And this is the final step. And here, we are redefining learning with technology. For example, using Google Hangouts to collaborate with scientists far away, such as on Mount Everest or in another country. Steps three and four, modification and redefinition help the teacher to transform their lessons.

Gamification is an idea that is really beginning to have impacts in education and in classrooms. Gamification is made up of ideas and concepts from many different theories-- theories like behaviorism, the idea that we learn as a result of a stimulus and then the reward or response that follows.

Cognitivism is the idea that prior knowledge supports learning and a memory system is where this process information ends up. Humanism is the idea that it is essential to have personalized student-centered learning where real world connections are being made. Constructivism is a model that promotes active engagement and the idea that students should be constructing their own meanings through inquiry and collaboration.

Game mechanics, or game theory, is when elements of game designs are incorporated into teaching. And this is done so that students can become engaged and motivated in lessons. It can be done using achievements, or levels, maybe experience points, or quests, or some sort of progression system.

So let's talk about what we learned today. We looked at the following questions. What are the various theories and models related to technology in teaching? And how are these theories similar and different to one another? We discussed several different theories and models that were directly related to technology in education. These included Shulman's idea of pedagogical content knowledge, or content and pedagogy must be connected.

We also discussed TPACK, which adds the domain of technology to this model. We looked at Charlotte Danielson's framework for teaching, which is a framework consisting of four domains-- planning and preparation, classroom environment, and instructional responsibilities. Finally, we discussed the different theories that make up the idea of gamification. Where actions of playing games are brought into the academic setting.

Now that you have a better understanding these theories and models, let's reflect on these new ideas. Which of these theories have you experienced in your education so far? What considerations must be made when deciding on various theories to implement in your teaching?

Thanks for joining me today in discussing the lesson "Technology, Theories and Models." I hope you found value in this video less than and are able to apply these ideas and theories to your own teaching. To dive a little deeper and learn how to apply this information, be sure to check out the additional resources section associated with this video. This is where you'll find links targeted toward helping you discover more ways to apply the course material.

Notes on “Technology Theories and Models”


(00:00- 00:23) Introduction/Objectives

(00:24- 01:52) Shulman: PCK and Instructional Strategies

(01:53- 02:28) Danielson: Framework for Teaching   

(02:29- 03:13) TPACK

(03:14- 04:26) SAMR

(04:27- 05:32) Gamification Theories

(05:33- 06:22) Recap

(06:23- 07:02) Reflection  


Additional Resources

As We May Teach: Educational Technology, From Theory Into Practice

This site provides links to podcasts about a joint project with the Maine Learning Technology Initiative (MLTI). These podcasts examine models for the use of educational technologies, and how to apply them in teaching via hands-on examples. The site also includes other valuable resources connected to the TPCK framework.

Tablet Technology for Education: Tablet technology in Western Australian public schools

This site connects theory to the design and implementation of tablet technology at the elementary level. The site is broken down into several helpful topics that can serve as useful guides for teachers and schools who are moving toward implementing tablet technology in their classrooms.