Terms in Statistics

Terms in Statistics

Author: Kendra Wheeler

New terms and definitions
Examples of each term
Show how the terms relate to eachother

A list of terms and definitions with examples. Research examples of the terms used and how to apply them.

See More
Introduction to Psychology

Analyze this:
Our Intro to Psych Course is only $329.

Sophia college courses cost up to 80% less than traditional courses*. Start a free trial now.


Terms and Definitions

Variable: Likely to change or vary. Having no fixed number value.


What are variables? They are things that we measure, control, or manipulate.


Dependent Variables: Is what changes when the independent variable changes. The dependant variable depends on the outcome of the independant variable, that is why it is called the dependant variable.


Independent Variable: are changes that occur in an experiment that are directly caused by the experimenter. 

The dependant variable is (y) and the independ variables are (x) in comparison to math equations. y = mx + b


Quantitative Data: varibles that differ in the amounts or scale and can be ordered. Quantitative variables are numerical. They repersent a measure of quantity. 

example: weight, temperature, time

    Discrete: numerical data that comes from a count of something. Discrete variable is one that cannot take on all values within the limits of the variable.

    Continuous: numerical data that come from a measurement. Vaiables that can take on any value are called continuous.


Qualitative Data: Variables which differ in types and can not be ordered. They are categorical variables.

example: gender, subjects, colors


Experiment: A planned activity from which we gather data that we then use to draw a conclusion about some variable of interest.


Parameter: Is the whole population. A numerical measure.


Example: average height of all college women.

Example: The ACT score of all incoming freshman at big state university is 28.2


Statistic: Is a sample poplution. A numerical measure of a sample which is used to estimate a parameter.

Example: A random sample of 25 freshman had an average ACT score of 29.6

Examples of the Terms

Examples of Independent Variables vs Dependent Variables:

  • If you were to do a study on the affect of studying for a test and your test score. The number of hours you study is the independent variable and the score of the test is the dependent variable.


  • If you were to do a study on the affect of drinking water and losing weight. The number of cups of water is the independent variable and your weight lost is your dependent variable.


Examples of Qualitative Data and Quantitative Data:

  • If you were going to do a study on the color of shirts to the price of the shirts. The colors would be qualitative data and cost of the shirts would be quantitative data.


  • If you were going to do a study on the size of shoe to the shoe brand the shoe brand would be qualitative and the shoe sizes would be quantitative.