To learn about the cell cycle and cellular reproduction.
This tutorial provides information on the cell cycle and cell reproduction with pictures, videos, animations, and more. The topics include, the phases of the cell cycle, (interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis), the importance of cellular division and reproduction, and possible disruptions of the cell cycle, like cancer.
When you finish going through this tutorial, take the quiz on the right of the screen to check what you know.----------------------------------------------------------->
The Cell Cycle occurs in three main phases, two of the phases have multiple sub-phases.
The above picture illustrates the cell cycle as described above.
"Cell cycle phases." Graphic design. BD. BD, 2014. 26 March 2014.
Interphase is the first step in the cell cycle. It is when all the cell's growth and other preparations are made in order to prepare for dividing in later steps. Interphase is grouped into three sub phases: G1, S, and G2.
"Cell Cycle." CliffNotes. Houghtin Mifflin Harcourt, 2013. Web. 26 March 2014.
"The Cell Cycle: Components of the Cell Cycle." SparkNotes. SparkNotesLLC, 2014. Web. 26 March 2014.
G1 Phase (made in Microsoft Paint)
"S phase." Graphic design. Interphase. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 March 2014. <http://cyberbridge.mcb.harvard.edu/mitosis_4.html>.
G2 Phase (made in Microsoft Paint)
Mitosis is the second step in the cell cycle. After the cell has made all of the proper preparations in interphase, it is ready to divide in mitosis. Mitosis is comprised of 4 sub steps, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
SparkNotes Editors. “SparkNote on Mitosis.” SparkNotes.com. SparkNotes LLC. n.d.. Web. 26 March 2014.
A clip from a helpful video on YouTube.
Amoeba Sisters. "The Mini Mitosis Tutorial." YouTube. Amoeba Sisters, 22 September 2013. Web. 26 March 2014.
Cytokinesis is the final phase in the cell cycle. Often it is folded in with mitosis but mitosis only refers to the division of chromosomes, not the entire cell. Cytokinesis is in fact division of a cells cytoplasm in order to form two new cells, making sure each one has a nucleus. Cytokinesis is the only phase in the cell cycle that doesn't have it's own sub-phases, but it does occur differently in plants and animals.
Baily, Regina. "Cytokinesis." About.com Biology. About.com, 2014. Web. 26 March 2014.
"Stages of mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis" ToKToL. ToKToL, 2014. Web. 26 March 2014.
This clip explains why our bodies need cells to divide. Take note that the video highlights only the importance of mitosis but interphase and cytokinesis are just as important because they provide the right environment for mitosis and complete the purpose of mitosis, respectively.
Amoeba Sisters. "Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply!" YouTube. Amoeba Sisters, 14 September 2013. Web. 26 March 2014.
By definition, cancer is uncontrolled and rapid division of cells that result in a large chunck of cells called a tumor, tumors can be benign or malignant. Cancer cells have been mutated and have lost their ability to function properly. Often this is caused by mutated proto-oncogenes called oncogenes. Cancer cells
McClean, Phillup. "The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and the Genetics of Cancer." ndsu.edu. Phillup McClean, 1997. Web 26 March 2014.
The following video is a visual representation of normal cell division versus cancerous cell division.
Jeremy Friedberd. "Cancer: Unregulated Cell Division." YouTube. Jeremy Friedberd, 30 September 2011. Web. 26 March 2014.
The link will take you to an animation of the cell cycle. Follow along with each step and recall what you now know. If you are unsure about something, go back and review.