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the claims of science rest on observation

the claims of science rest on observation

Author: david utsey

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Metaphysics is defined as the Metaphysics is the philosophical investigation of the ultimate nature of reality. Metaphysics is concerned, first and foremost, with the nature of reality. But it is not by any means the only subject with this concern. Physics deals with the nature of physical reality, epistemology with the nature of knowledge, and aesthetics with the nature of beauty. It is distinguished, in part, from physics and other branches of science by the a priori character of its method.
The claims of science rest on observation; the claims of metaphysics do not, except perhaps incidentally. Metaphysics is also distinguished from other branches of philosophy, not by the aperiodicity of its methods but by the generality of its concerns. Other branches of philosophy deal with this or that aspect of reality with justice and well-being, for example, or with feeling and thought. This branch of physics ultimately covers the physical world that exists, and every entity has a specific nature. It acts according to that nature. When different entities interact, they do so according to the nature of both. Every action has a cause and an effect.
Metaphysics as a contributor to modern day education includes the distinct sets of beliefs about the nature of reality presently apply each of these world philosophies. The first one is Idealism. This is a philosophical approach that has as its central tenet that ideas are the only true reality, the only thing worth knowing. The first is the spiritual or mental world, which is eternal, permanent, orderly, regular, and universal. There is also the world of appearance. In idealism, the aim of education is to discover and develop each individual's abilities and full moral excellence in order to better serve society (253-355).

The second one is Realism. Realists believe that reality exists independent of the human mind. The ultimate reality is the world of physical objects. The focus is on the body/objects. The Realist curriculum emphasizes the subject matter of the physical world, particularly science and mathematics. The teacher organizes and presents content systematically within a discipline, demonstrating use of criteria in making decisions. Teaching methods focus on mastery of facts and basic skills through demonstration and recitation. Curriculum should be scientifically approached, standardized, and distinct-discipline based (253-355).
The next one is Pragmatism(Experimentalism). For pragmatists, only those things that are experienced or observed are real. For Pragmatists, teaching methods focus on hands-on problem solving, experimenting, and projects, often having students work in groups. Pragmatists believe that learners should apply their knowledge to real situations through experimental inquiry. This prepares students for citizenship, daily living, and future careers. (Armstrong, David. 1989).
Lastly, Existentialism. This is the nature of reality for Existentialists is subjective, and lies within the individual. The physical world has no inherent meaning outside of human existence. Individual choice and individual standards rather than external standards are central. Existence comes before any definition of what we are. We define ourselves in relationship to that existence by the choices we make. he subject matter of existentialist classrooms should be a matter of personal choice. Character development emphasizes individual responsibility for decisions. Real answers come from within the individual, not from outside authority. Examining life through authentic thinking involves students in genuine learning experiences. Existentialists are opposed to thinking about students as objects to be measured, tracked, or standardized.

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