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The Response

The Response

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Author: Capella Partnered with CARD
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This lesson covers:
BCAT B-21: Response

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Tutorial

what's covered
This lesson will explore the response by defining and discussing the following:
  1. The Response
  2. Categories
    1. Correct Response
    2. Incorrect Response
    3. Prompted Response
    4. No Response
  3. Guidelines for Responses

1. The Response

The response is the second part of the three-term contingency. It is also referred to as the behavior. It is defined as the patient’s behavior that occurs after the presentation of the antecedent (SD).

Response may include verbal behavior or adaptive, academic, social, motor, or other types of skills. This is sometimes abbreviated as simply "R."

EXAMPLE

SD Response Consequence
Teacher says "Touch the car." Jacob touches the car. Jacob gets candy.


In this case, the SD was given for Jacob to “Touch the car.” Jacob’s response or behavior was to touch the car.
term to know

Response
The patient’s behavior that occurs after the presentation of the antecedent (SD)

2. Categories

There are four primary categories of responses:

  • Correct response
  • Incorrect response
  • Prompted response
  • No response
2a. Correct Response
Correct response (CR) is defined as the desired response to the SD presented.

EXAMPLE

Antecedent Response Consequence
"Tell me what this is," and shows a picture of a bed. "Bed" "Superstar!" and receives tickles.


EXAMPLE

SD CR
Teacher says, "Touch the car." Jacob touches the car,

Video Transcription

What is it?

Hot dog.

[GASP]

Wow! You got it. That's right.

[BLOWING RASPBERRIES]

[GIGGLE]

[BLOWING RASPBERRIES]

2b. Incorrect Response
Incorrect response (IR) is defined as any other response other than the target behavior.

EXAMPLE

Antecedent Response Consequence
"Tell me what this is," and shows a picture of a bed. "Apple" "No, try again."


EXAMPLE

SD IR
Teacher says, "Touch the car." Jacob touches the shoe.

Video Transcription

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What's this?

[SPEAKS INCOHERENTLY]

Nope. Try again.

2c. Prompted Response
Prompted response (PR) refers to providing an appropriate response to the SD with assistance.

EXAMPLE

Antecedent Response Consequence
"Tell me what this is," and shows a picture of a bed.
(+ Prompt: "Bed")
"Bed" "Nice job."

Video Transcription

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Here we go. What is it? Say hot dog.

Hot dog.

Oh my goodness. That was so good.

2d. No Response
No response (NR) refers to providing no response to the SD.

EXAMPLE

Antecedent Response Consequence
"Tell me what this is," and shows a picture of a bed. "..." "No, try again."


EXAMPLE

SD CR
Teacher says, "Touch the car." Jacob just sits there.

Video Transcription

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What is it?


3. Guidelines for Responses

There are three main guidelines that should be followed for responses during DTT.

1. The behavior technician must be consistent about what is considered a correct response.

The Wrong Way The Right Way
Jimmy is learning to request, and the BCBA has instructed caregivers, teachers, and behavior technicians to have him incorporate actions, or verbs, into his requests. As such, when Jimmy wants to see Mommy, he should say, “Can I go see Mommy?”, or “Can I see Mommy?”, or “I want to see Mommy.” But a few people are still accepting, “I want Mommy,” as the correct response. No one accepts, “I want Mommy,” as the correct response, and all require Jimmy to use a verb or action word in his request.

In this example, if everyone consistently does this the right way, Jimmy will learn to incorporate actions, or verbs, into his requests more quickly. Most of us do as little as we can get away with, so if we are not consistent, we will not get as much from the patient as they can give us.

hint
Being consistent does not mean that the patient’s responses cannot vary. Note that in the example above, Jimmy was allowed several ways to ask to see Mommy that would be considered correct, as long as he included a verb. We want variability in our patient’s responses – this is normal!

Video Transcription

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Tell me a furniture.

Say, "A".

Furnish-

A--

Say, "A couch--"

A couch.

Is the furniture.

Furniture

Good. So tell me a furniture.

Couch.

Is a--

Couch.

Say, "Couch is a fern--"

Furniture.

Good. So tell me a furniture. C--

Couch.

Is?

Is furniture.

Yeah!

2. Be sure extraneous behavior is absent.

The Wrong Way The Right Way
You present the SD, “What’s your name?” and Elias responds, “Elias,” but is also flapping his hands as he responds. As a consequence, you give Elias a cookie for responding to his name correctly. However, hand flapping is the extraneous behavior. Therefore, this would not be considered a correct response. You present the SD, “What’s your name?” and Elias responds, “Elias,” while flapping his hands as he responds. You count this as an incorrect response and use the error correction procedure your BCBA has instructed you to use to teach Elias to respond without flapping his hands. You’ll learn about two types of error correction procedures later in this training.

In the above "wrong way," you will accidentally reinforce the extraneous behavior. That is, the extraneous behavior will be more likely to occur in the future when you present the SD.

Video Transcription

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Do you want this shoe?

Shoes.

OK, here you go.

Shoes.

Say no.

No.

Good. Stop. Watch your fingers. Do you want this shoe?

[INAUDIBLE]

Say no.

No.

Good. So do you want the shoes?

No.

OK.

3. Limit the time between SD and R to three seconds.

The Wrong Way The Right Way
You ask Cruz, ”What do you see?” while looking at a picture in a book. After seven or eight seconds, Cruz responds, “I see Big Bird.” You reward Cruz by giving him a toy car to play with for a few seconds. You ask Cruz, “What do you see?” If after three seconds, Cruz hasn’t responded, you will implement whatever error correction procedure your BCBA has instructed you to use.

If the patient receives a positive consequence for responding after seven or eight seconds, they will learn that it is okay to wait several seconds before responding. In everyday interactions, we respond immediately. The patient will miss many opportunities if they respond slowly. So, if we have a patient who responds that slowly, we teach them to respond more quickly.

When the patient does not respond, consider the NR to be incorrect.

Video Transcription

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What's this?

[MUMBLES INCOHERENTLY]

Nope, try again.

What's this?

Hot dog!

There you go, mister!

What's this?

Hot dog!

Hot dog. Good job. Give me five. OK, one more.

What's this?

Faster.

Oh, try again. What's this?

Hot dog.

Hot dog! You are so smart!

I want faster.

summary
In this lesson, you learned about the response and categories, recalling that the response (R), also referred to as the behavior, is the second part of the three-term contingency. It is defined as the patient’s behavior that occurs after the presentation of the antecedent (SD), and may include verbal behavior, adaptive, academic, social, motor, or other types of skills. You learned that there are four primary categories of responses: correct response (CR), incorrect response (IR), prompted response (PR), and no response (NR). You also reviewed the three main guidelines for responses that should be followed for responses during DTT:
  • The behavior technician must be consistent about what is considered a correct response.
  • Be sure extraneous behavior is absent.
  • Limit the time between SD and R to three seconds.

Terms to Know
Response

The patient’s behavior which occurs after the presentation of the antecedent (Sᴰ)