Thyroid and Parathyroid

Thyroid and Parathyroid

Author: Nathan Lampson

This lesson will describe the functions of the thyroid and parathyroid glands as well as identify how they work together to maintain blood calcium homeostasis.

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  • Thyroid Gland

    The largest endocrine gland located on the anterior trachea, the thyroid gland secretes hormones that elevate basal metabolic rate (BMR) called T₃ (Triiodothyronine) and T₄. (Thyroxine) The thyroid gland also secretes a hormone called calcitonin that lowers blood calcium levels by increasing renal excretion of calcium and inhibiting osteoclasts.

  • Parathyroid Glands

    A group of glands on the posterior thyroid that secrete parathyroid hormone to increase blood calcium levels by decreasing renal excretion of calcium and increasing osteoclast activity.

  • Simple Goiter

    A non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland that can sometimes occur on its own or when a person is lacking in iodine and the thyroid hormones.

  • Graves Disease

    An autoimmune disease that causes the thyroid gland to become overactive and over-secrete T₃ and T₄ and is the most common form of hyperthyroidism.