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Thyroid and Parathyroids

Thyroid and Parathyroids

Author: Aaron Mullally
Description:

This lesson will describe the functions of the thyroid and parathyroid glands as well as identify how they work together to maintain blood calcium homeostasis.

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Tutorial
Terms to Know
Graves Disease

An autoimmune disease that causes the thyroid gland to become overactive and over-secrete T₃ and T₄ and is the most common form of hyperthyroidism.

Parathyroid Glands

A group of glands on the posterior thyroid that secrete parathyroid hormone to increase blood calcium levels by decreasing renal excretion of calcium and increasing osteoclast activity.

Simple Goiter

A non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland that can sometimes occur on its own or when a person is lacking in iodine and the thyroid hormones.

Thyroid Gland

The largest endocrine gland located on the anterior trachea, the thyroid gland secretes hormones that elevate basal metabolic rate (BMR) called T₃ (Triiodothyronine) and T₄. (Thyroxine) The thyroid gland also secretes a hormone called calcitonin that lowers blood calcium levels by increasing renal excretion of calcium and inhibiting osteoclasts.