Source: Thyroid image, Public Domain: http://bit.ly/SI51qY; Parathyroid image, Creative Commons: http://bit.ly/VYi65m; Struma image, Creative Commons: http://bit.ly/TBHya2; Marty Feldman image, Creative Commons: http://bit.ly/Ukqh5Q
The largest endocrine gland located on the anterior trachea, the thyroid gland secretes hormones that elevate basal metabolic rate (BMR) called T₃ (Triiodothyronine) and T₄. (Thyroxine) The thyroid gland also secretes a hormone called calcitonin that lowers blood calcium levels by increasing renal excretion of calcium and inhibiting osteoclasts.
A group of glands on the posterior thyroid that secrete parathyroid hormone to increase blood calcium levels by decreasing renal excretion of calcium and increasing osteoclast activity.
A non-cancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland that can sometimes occur on its own or when a person is lacking in iodine and the thyroid hormones.
An autoimmune disease that causes the thyroid gland to become overactive and over-secrete T₃ and T₄ and is the most common form of hyperthyroidism.