3 Tutorials that teach Toulmin argument model
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Toulmin argument model

Toulmin argument model

Author: Evan Saathoff

This lesson teaches the basics of argumentation using the Toulmin model.

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Introduction to Psychology

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  • Toulmin Model of Argumentation

    A methodology for organizing and structuring arguments, created by rhetorician Stephen Toulmin, and designed to support complicated, abstract, or consistently debateable claims.

  • Claim

    In the Toulmin argumentation model, a statement a writer wants the reader to believe or accept.

  • Grounds

    In the Toulmin argumentation model, evidence (data, facts, logic) that backs up or supports the claim.

  • Warrant

    In the Toulmin argumentation model, the information or reasoning that connects the claim to the grounds.

  • Backing

    In the Toulmin argumentation model, further support provided when the audience is unlikely to accept the warrant without further evidence.

  • Rebuttal or Counterargument

    In the Toulmin argumentation accounting for likely objections to the claim.

  • Qualifier

    In the Toulmin argumentation model, words or phrases that indicate the writer's level of certainty regarding the claim or add nuance to the claim.