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Toulmin Argument Model

Toulmin Argument Model

Author: Katie Sutton

This lesson teaches the basics of argumentation using the Toulmin model.

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Terms to Know

In the Toulmin argumentation model, further support provided when the audience is unlikely to accept the warrant without further evidence.


In the Toulmin argumentation model, a statement a writer wants the reader to believe or accept.


In the Toulmin argumentation model, evidence (data, facts, logic) that backs up or supports the claim.


In the Toulmin argumentation model, words or phrases that indicate the writer's level of certainty regarding the claim or add nuance to the claim.

Rebuttal or Counterargument

In the Toulmin argumentation accounting for likely objections to the claim.

Toulmin Model of Argumentation

A methodology for organizing and structuring arguments, created by rhetorician Stephen Toulmin, and designed to support complicated, abstract, or consistently debateable claims.


In the Toulmin argumentation model, the information or reasoning that connects the claim to the grounds.