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Types of Projects

Types of Projects

Author: Sophia Tutorial

Categorize projects used in project management.

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by Jeff Carroll

Source: Image of process, tablet computer, waterfall arrow, iterative arrow, Creative Commons, Sparkol Videoscribe internal image; Image of automobile, call center face, female presenter, Creative Commons, Kelly Eddington.

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Hi. I'm Jeff, and this lesson is on project approaches and methodology. We'll discuss the different categories of projects and the methods that can be used to manage those projects. So let's get started.

Projects can be categorized based on the results that they produce. A project can be focused on developing or adapting processes, for example. Human resources might launch projects to improve the hiring or annual review process. And the results of these projects are often used internally by organizations.

Products and services are often produced by projects such as automobile design or call centers. The end result of these projects is often sold to customers. Technology projects focus on the creation or the evolution of technology. Software development and the development of hardware to run the software would be considered technology projects. And finally, people-focused projects. These projects might involve skill development, improving performance, coordinating teams, or just increasing satisfaction in the workplace.

All projects ultimately impact people, though. The HR process involves people hiring people. Cars are driven by people. The end users for all technology are people. So any project must have methods that help provide those people with exactly what they want. And that's what we'll discuss next.

There are a wide range of methodologies used in project management, and these will vary based on the industry, organization, or the individual project manager. But most methodologies are subsets of two broad types-- phase-based or iterative projects. Which the project manager chooses is often based on how much is known about the requirements for the expected deliverables.

Phase-based projects are used when the results are well defined-- for example, in the construction of a house. Phase-based is also used for safety critical projects such as avionic software for airplanes or nuclear power plant monitoring. Planning is considered the most important aspect of a phase-based project. Before any work begins, the project team will create detailed documents outlining the requirements for the deliverables, the schedule and the budget, and a timeline showing exactly how the work will proceed.

A phase-based project will then proceed sequentially through each step, with the intent that the planning phase will not be revisited. That's why this type of project is often known as a waterfall project, because it is difficult to move back upstream once you've moved on to the next stage.

Iterative projects, on the other hand, don't put such an emphasis on planning. They are used when the final product cannot be as well known when the project starts or when the results are more difficult to define. For example, when developing a video game, it's difficult to know what is fun until the project has actually created a partial product.

So how does that work, if the project doesn't know but it's producing? Well, each stage of an iterative project focuses on creating small deliverables that help inform the next stage of development. Between each stage, the deliverables from the last stage are tested, and new plans and new deliverables are targeted for the next stage.

It might be easier to think of an iterative project as a collection of small phase-based projects completed in succession. These continue until the project has produced a product that satisfies the initial goals. One well-known iterative methodology is called Agile, and there is a defined process for how it should proceed. And you'll often find this and other iterative methodologies common in the technology projects that we discussed earlier and also in research and development.

OK, good job. Now you've learned more about project management. You know the different types of projects, and you know the methodologies that can be used to manage those projects. Excellent work, and thanks for your time.

Video Chapters

(00:00 - 00:13) Introduction
(00:14 - 01:35) Types of Projects

(01:36 - 04:17) Project Methodologies

(04:18 - 04:35) Summary