UNIT V STUDY GUIDE The Civil War, 1863–1865

UNIT V STUDY GUIDE The Civil War, 1863–1865

Author: Emma Drink


UNIT V STUDY GUIDEThe Civil War, 1863–1865Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VUpon completion of this unit, students should be able to:2. Describe the effects social ideologies had on the Patriot or U.S. military.3. Examine the innovations and technological advances directly related to the U.S. military.7. Evaluate differences in the U.S. military during times of peace and war.Reading AssignmentChapter 7:The Civil War, 1863–1865, pp. 181–217Unit LessonLincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation set the tone for the North and thus the country in 1863. It was risky, asmany Northerners were outraged at fighting the war over this cause. However, despite its ability to fragmentNorthern society, a cry for freedom invigorated the war effort. At this trying time militarily, the North neededany source of new or renewed support.The proclamation also paved the way for black soldiersto fight. This further increased the North’s alreadysuperior manpower. The South would later attempt toarm its slaves in an effort to tap this unused source ofmanpower. However, the South fought on the groundsthat slaves were not truly men, and arming them was incontrast to this belief. It was implemented out ofdesperation at the end of the war, thus having very littleeffect except to erode the morale of many Southernfighters.Lincoln discusses his emancipation proclamationspeech.To both armies, black recruits could have been helpfulbecause both armies suffered from disease, casualties,and desertion. These factors led them to employ otherways to man the war. Ironically, the South, fighting for states’ rights, embraced national conscription on amuch wider scale than the North. This created a dilemma for the South on how to raise an army fighting forthe Confederacy rather than individual states. Their national conscription policy expressed their belief incentralized authority, contrary to a main cause for the secession to begin with, which was a strong belief inthe autonomy of individual states. The Confederacy enacted the first national draft law in American history. Aglaring weakness in the Southern conscription law was that it allowed liberal exemptions and substitutions,based on the constitutional clause allowing the government to “raise and support armies.” The Northernconscription was known as the Enrollment Act, and it also allowed for exemptions and substitutions.(Carpenter, 1864)One major problem with which the North struggled was morale. The North had expected a quick victory, butthe war was so prolonged that many Northerners began to question the reasons for war and were agitated toaccept terms with the South to end it. Of course, with famine and inflation rampant in the South, theConfederacy also suffered. Yet, prior to General Sherman, they seemed to suffer more silently. The Northstruggled loud and clear, even into late 1863 as it became clear that the South could not win the war. Despitebeing unable to win it, the Northern populace wavered as the South struggled to prolong the war. Thecontinued fighting and horrendous Northern casualties made the election of 1864, when Lincoln was up forHY 2000, American Military History I

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