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Vaccines

Vaccines

Description:

This lesson will describe how a vaccine can be used to prevent certain diseases.

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Tutorial

What's Covered

This lesson will be taking a look at how vaccines are used to produce an immune response by examining:

  1. Vaccines
  2. Effect in the Body

1.Vaccines

What is a vaccine and how does it work? A vaccine is basically a dead or weakened virus that is injected into a person. By doing that, it elicits an immune response that will produce antibodies and memory cells. If the person comes in contact with that virus in the future, the body is able to quickly respond and kill the virus before it causes any sort of illness.

Term to Know

    • Vaccine
    • A therapy that involves injecting an augmented/altered pathogen into a person to induce active immunity; vaccines prepare a person for when they are naturally exposed to specific pathogens by stimulating them to already have the proper antibodies and memory cells in their systems.

The dead or weakened virus that's injected is an example of an antigen. Antigens are things that elicit an immune system response. A vaccine causes the body to produce active immunity.This means is that it causes the body to produce antibodies against that specific antigen that has been injected.

ExampleIf you get the flu vaccine, you're going to be producing antibodies against that flu virus. If you get the polio vaccine, your body produces antibodies against the polio virus. The vaccines are generally used against viruses. They are sometimes used against certain types of bacterial infections as well.

Terms to Know
    • Antigen
    • A unique marker that has the potential to stimulate an immune response; antigens are basically the identity marker of cells for the immune system to see.
    • Active Immunity
    • Also known as specific immunity, active immunity is carried out by T & B lymphocytes and reacts to specific antigens of cells; active immunity also produces memory cells to target the same pathogen if we are ever exposed to it again.

When you get a vaccine, a secondary booster shot may be required. It helps your body produce a secondary response, which forms more effector and more memory cells. It provides a longer lasting protection against that.

Term to Know

    • Booster Shot
    • Not every vaccine has lifelong effects, so when antibody levels decline after a certain period of time a booster shot is given to bring the back up again.

2. Effect in the Body

When a vaccine is injected into the body, the body’s B-cells will develop antibodies against this antigen. They prevent that antigen from functioning, and memory cells are produced. If you were to come in contact with the virus you were vaccinated against, your body will already know how to fight it.

IN CONTEXT
Chances are you have had a polio vaccine. When you were injected with this vaccine, the B-cells in your body produced the antibodies to allow your body to fight this virus. If you ever do come in contact with the virus, your body has these defenses to fight polio before it can cause you to become ill. This is because the memory cells this vaccine caused your body to make can produce antibodies very quickly

Summary

A vaccine is a dead or weakened virus that will cause your body to illicit an immune response. This causes the body to produce antibodies and memory cells. When you encounter this virus again in the future, your body is able to fight it. Sometimes a booster shot is needed to give longer immunity. The effect in the body, the vaccine will cause your B-Cells to create the antibodies and memory cells needed for long term protection.

Keep up the learning and have a great day!

Source: Source: THIS WORK IS ADAPTED FROM SOPHIA AUTHOR AMANDA SODERLIND

TERMS TO KNOW
  • Vaccine

    A therapy that involves injecting an augmented/altered pathogen into a person to induce active immunity; vaccines prepare a person for when they are naturally exposed to specific pathogens by stimulating them to already have the proper antibodies and memory cells in their systems.

  • Antigen

    A unique marker that has the potential to stimulate an immune response; antigens are basically the identity marker of cells for the immune system to see.

  • Active Immunity

    Also known as specific immunity, active immunity is carried out by T & B lymphocytes and reacts to specific antigens of cells; active immunity also produces memory cells to target the same pathogen if we are ever exposed to it again.

  • Booster Shot

    Not every vaccine has lifelong effects, so when antibody levels decline after a certain period of time a booster shot is given to bring the back up again.