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Variables, Data and Other Terms in Statistics.

Variables, Data and Other Terms in Statistics.

Author: Sara Gorsuch

Shows new terms and definitions, focusing on variable,data, qualitative data, quantitative data, experiment, parameter and statistic. Providing good explanations to help understand these concepts and how they all go together.

I will take you through basic statistic ideas/definitions in my power point thoroughly explaining them
and then going over more terms that go along with and help explain the ones in the power point below!

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What are some more terms that go along with these things?

Data Related

Context: tells who was measured, what was measured, how the data was collected, where the data was collected and when and why the study was performed. 


Data: Systematically recorded information ( numbers or labels) together with its context.


Data Table: an organized arrangement of data where every row represents a case and every column represents a variable. 


Various ways to organize data!

Bar Graph: Displays the distribution of qualitative data showing the counts for each category next to each other for easier comparison. 

Pie Chart: Displays the whole group of data in a circle which is sliced into proportions.

Contingency Table: Show how individuals are distributed along each variable contingent on the value of the other variables. 

recognize when variables are categorical and choose an appropriate display!

Histogram: Is like a bar graph, it plots the counts as the height of the bars.

Stem and Leaf Plot: Contains all the information a histogram does, but also preserves individual data values. 

ex.  The stem-and-leaf plot below shows the number of students enrolled in a dance class in the past 12 years.

The number of students are 81, 84, 85, 86, 93, 94, 97, 100, 102, 103, 110, and 111.

Dot Plot: Is a simple display, places a dot along the axis for every case in the data. 


Experimental Related.

Placebo: a 'fake' treatment that looks just like the treatment being tested. This is used to determine if a treatment actually works or if it is a mental facade (People think they are getting better because they are getting medicine even though there is no active ingredient in the placebo).


Single Blind Study: When all the individuals in either class (investigator or participant) are 'blinded'. Only one of the sides are fully blinded.  (They do not know if they are giving/being given the active treatment or placebo)


Double Blind Study: Everyone in BOTH classes (investigator and participant) are 'blinded'. Both sides are fully blinded. (no one knows who is receiving the active treatment and who is receiving the placebo) 


Control Group: Is used in order to compare the treatment results in a situation where 'nothing happens'

Variables, Data and Other Terms in Statistics