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Week 2: Crisis Intervention Models
Have you ever found comfort during trying times by talking about your problems with friends or family members who have had similar experiences? Or used deep breathing or meditation to cope with a stressful situation? Have you ever elected to discuss a difficult situation on the phone or online because it was easier than communicating face-to-face? Or reviewed the details of a surprising or unusual event with someone to help make sense of it? It might surprise you to learn that these common scenarios are, in fact, the basis for several models of crisis intervention. This week, you further explore models of crisis intervention and reflect on their strengths and limitations. Additionally, you apply crisis intervention skills and strategies to the assessment of a client's needs within a crisis situation.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this week, you should be able to:
Analyze strengths and limitations of crisis intervention models
Apply crisis intervention models and appropriate skills and strategies to assess and address client needs
Understand and apply concepts and techniques related to crisis intervention models, skills, and strategies
Please proceed to the Learning Resources.
Learning Resources
Please read and view (where applicable) the following Learning Resources before you complete this week's assignments.
Course Text: James, R. K. & Gilliland, B.E. (2017). Crisis intervention strategies (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. Review Chapter 3, "Intervention and Assessment Models"
Review Chapter 4, "Tools of the Trade"
Chapter 5, "Crisis Case Handling"
Chapter 6, "Telephone and Online Crisis Case Counseling"

Article: Castellano, C., & Plionis, E. (2006). Comparative analysis of three crisis intervention models applied to law enforcement first responders during 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina. Brief Treatment and Crisis Intervention, 6(4), 326–336.Use the ProQuest Central database.In this article, the authors compare the psychological first aid (PFA), critical incident stress management (CISM), and crisis counseling program (CCP) models as used in crisis interventions following Hurricane Katrina and 9/11.
Choose at least one of the following articles to read for both the Discussion and Application:Article: Cohen, M. B., & Graybeal, C. T. (2007). Using solution-oriented techniques in mutual aid groups. Social Work With Groups, 30(4), 41–5 8.Use the Academic Search Complete database.In this article, the mutual aid approach is introduced as a model of crisis intervention. Solution-focused techniques within a mutual aid setting are explained.
Article: Miller, J. (2003). Critical incident debriefing and social work: Expanding the frame. Journal of Social Service Research, 30(2), 7–25.Use the Academic Search Complete database.This article discusses the nature and purpose of debriefing after traumatic events, and compares specific models of debriefing. The role of debriefing within the context of social work is emphasized.
Article: Ullman, S. E., & Townsend, S. M. (2008). What is an empowerment approach to working with sexual assault survivors? Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3), 299–312.Use the Academic Search Complete database.In this article, the results of a study investigating the use of the empowerment approach at rape crisis centers are discussed. Specific empowerment techniques and implications of the study on crisis counseling are presented.
Article: Chan, C. L. W., Chan, T. H. Y., & Ng, S. M. (2006). The strength-focused and meaning-oriented approach to resilience and transformation (SMART): A body-mind-spirit approach to trauma management.Social Work in Health Care, 43(2/3), 9–36.Use the Academic Search Complete database.This article proposes the strength-focused and meaning-oriented approach to resilience and transformation (SMART) as a viable model of crisis intervention. The characteristics of SMART, its relationship to Eastern spiritual teachings, and its application to the crisis situation surrounding the 2003 SARS epidemic in Hong Kong are discussed.


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