x ray crystallography
X-ray diffraction is an important method to determine the crystal structure of proteins. There is currently no tool that can directly observe the arrangement of atoms and groups inside a protein. Although the electron microscope is close to seeing the outline of macromolecules, it is limited to revealing the size, shape, symmetry, and aggregation state of the molecules. The X-ray crystallography method can be used to indirectly study the spatial structure of protein crystals. The study of crystal structure helps to understand matter at the atomic level.